Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East J Rehabil Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com 2423-4451 10.5812/mejrh. en jalali 2017 5 25 gregorian 2017 5 25 1 1
en 10.17795/mejrh-20839 Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Exercises on Some Functional Activity Indexes of Patients With Diabetes Type 2 Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Exercises on Some Functional Activity Indexes of Patients With Diabetes Type 2 research-article research-article Background

Around 7% of the world population have diabetes and suffer from its extensive complications. Many studies are conducted on the positive effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on the reduction of body performances, but considering the available references, no specific study is conducted on the effect of eccentric exercises on patients with diabetes.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of eccentric and concentric exercises on some functional activity indexes in patients with diabetes type 2.

Patients and Methods

Twenty eight patients with diabetes type 2 were randomly divided into two groups of eccentric and concentric exercises using treadmill. Six Minute Walking and Time up and Go tests were performed before and after control and intervention periods.

Results

Results of the current study showed that eccentric and concentric exercises significantly improved the two mentioned functional indexes. However, eccentric exercises in comparison with concentric exercises significantly improved the results of Six Minute Walking Test (P < 0.0001). Also, in the time up and go test, no significant difference was observed between the groups.

Conclusions

Results of the current study showed that the eccentric exercises improve the functional activity of patients with diabetes.

Background

Around 7% of the world population have diabetes and suffer from its extensive complications. Many studies are conducted on the positive effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on the reduction of body performances, but considering the available references, no specific study is conducted on the effect of eccentric exercises on patients with diabetes.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of eccentric and concentric exercises on some functional activity indexes in patients with diabetes type 2.

Patients and Methods

Twenty eight patients with diabetes type 2 were randomly divided into two groups of eccentric and concentric exercises using treadmill. Six Minute Walking and Time up and Go tests were performed before and after control and intervention periods.

Results

Results of the current study showed that eccentric and concentric exercises significantly improved the two mentioned functional indexes. However, eccentric exercises in comparison with concentric exercises significantly improved the results of Six Minute Walking Test (P < 0.0001). Also, in the time up and go test, no significant difference was observed between the groups.

Conclusions

Results of the current study showed that the eccentric exercises improve the functional activity of patients with diabetes.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Exercise Therapy;Motor Activity Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2;Exercise Therapy;Motor Activity http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20839 Abdolhamid Hajihasani Abdolhamid Hajihasani Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-2333654180 Farid Bahrpeyma Farid Bahrpeyma Department of Physiotherapy, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physiotherapy, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Amir Hooshang Bakhtiary Amir Hooshang Bakhtiary Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20833 The Pregnant Mothers' Knowledge About Breastfeeding in Semnan, Iran The Pregnant Mothers' Knowledge About Breastfeeding in Semnan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

A significant number of pregnant mothers had average knowledge that indicating necessity of interventional programs by health system, particularly for pregnant mothers with lower education level.

Background

Breastfeeding is accepted as the most desirable method of infant nurturing.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate pregnant mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding as well as to study its associated factors.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the knowledge of 400 pregnant mothers who were referred to Semnan Province health centers. Data collection was performed via questionnaires and the scores were calculated. One point was considered for correct answers and zero for incorrect or “do not know” replies. The Relative frequency of correct responses for every person was calculated. Mothers who answered less than 20% of the questions correctly were considered to have a very poor knowledge. Scores between 2.0 and 3.9 were the ones with poor knowledge, those with 4.0 to 5.9, 6.0 to 7.9, and larger than or equal to 8.0 were considered to have an average, good, and very good knowledge, respectively.

Results

Overall, 1%, 5%, 43.8%, 42.5%, and 7.8% of mothers had very poor, poor, average, good, and very good level of knowledge about breastfeeding. There was a significant association between mothers’ knowledge and mothers’ education, breastfeeding history, and parity; however, no significant association was found with age and the month of pregnancy. The most frequent source of obtaining information was health centers’ personnel (34.3%) followed by family and friends. The highest percentage of proper response, i.e. 95.5% and 90.5%, were related to questions on necessity of exclusive breastfeeding and its continuation for six month of life, respectively; the lowest percentage of proper response, i.e. 11.8% and 18%, belonged to questions concerning expressed milk storage time in the refrigerator and freezer, respectively.

Conclusions

A significant number of pregnant mothers had average knowledge that indicating necessity of interventional programs by health system, particularly for pregnant mothers with lower education level.

Background

Breastfeeding is accepted as the most desirable method of infant nurturing.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate pregnant mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding as well as to study its associated factors.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the knowledge of 400 pregnant mothers who were referred to Semnan Province health centers. Data collection was performed via questionnaires and the scores were calculated. One point was considered for correct answers and zero for incorrect or “do not know” replies. The Relative frequency of correct responses for every person was calculated. Mothers who answered less than 20% of the questions correctly were considered to have a very poor knowledge. Scores between 2.0 and 3.9 were the ones with poor knowledge, those with 4.0 to 5.9, 6.0 to 7.9, and larger than or equal to 8.0 were considered to have an average, good, and very good knowledge, respectively.

Results

Overall, 1%, 5%, 43.8%, 42.5%, and 7.8% of mothers had very poor, poor, average, good, and very good level of knowledge about breastfeeding. There was a significant association between mothers’ knowledge and mothers’ education, breastfeeding history, and parity; however, no significant association was found with age and the month of pregnancy. The most frequent source of obtaining information was health centers’ personnel (34.3%) followed by family and friends. The highest percentage of proper response, i.e. 95.5% and 90.5%, were related to questions on necessity of exclusive breastfeeding and its continuation for six month of life, respectively; the lowest percentage of proper response, i.e. 11.8% and 18%, belonged to questions concerning expressed milk storage time in the refrigerator and freezer, respectively.

Knowledge; Pregnant Women; Breast Feeding Knowledge; Pregnant Women; Breast Feeding http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20833 Batool Karimi Batool Karimi Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2313354183, Fax: +98-2313554161 Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2313354183, Fax: +98-2313554161 Melika Zarei Sani Melika Zarei Sani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Community Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Navid Danai Navid Danai Department of Pediatrician, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Pediatrician, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20837 Local Quadriceps Vibration Training in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Local Quadriceps Vibration Training in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial research-article research-article Background

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease and several different physiotherapy protocols have been recommended to provide pain relief and improve disability in patients with Knee OA.

Objectives

In order to find the effectiveness of local vibration application on knee OA complications, a randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to assess the changes in muscle torque, balance, pain perception, and physical function after local quadriceps muscle vibration in women with knee OA.

Patients and Methods

A total of 50 with knee OA (age range, 35–73 years of age) who were referred from outpatient clinic of Semnan University of Medical Sciences were recruited in a single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial and were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving local vibration over the quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional physiotherapy or control group receiving only conventional physiotherapy. The following measures were assessed before and after 15 sessions of intervention and after four-week follow-up: knee flexor and extensor muscle torque, dynamic and static balance indices, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) index, knee pain perception, active knee flexion range of motion (ROM), and six-minute walking test (6 MWT).

Results

knee pain, balance indices, 6 MWT, and WOMAC index were significantly improved after intervention in both experimental and control groups (P < 0.05) while more knee pain relief, better balance performance, and more active knee flexion ROM were found in the vibration group in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Local vibration may increase the effectiveness of conventional physiotherapy protocol by reducing pain perception and improving balance control and active knee flexion ROM in women with knee OA. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different protocols of local vibration training on knee OA symptoms.

Background

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease and several different physiotherapy protocols have been recommended to provide pain relief and improve disability in patients with Knee OA.

Objectives

In order to find the effectiveness of local vibration application on knee OA complications, a randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to assess the changes in muscle torque, balance, pain perception, and physical function after local quadriceps muscle vibration in women with knee OA.

Patients and Methods

A total of 50 with knee OA (age range, 35–73 years of age) who were referred from outpatient clinic of Semnan University of Medical Sciences were recruited in a single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial and were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving local vibration over the quadriceps muscles in addition to conventional physiotherapy or control group receiving only conventional physiotherapy. The following measures were assessed before and after 15 sessions of intervention and after four-week follow-up: knee flexor and extensor muscle torque, dynamic and static balance indices, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) index, knee pain perception, active knee flexion range of motion (ROM), and six-minute walking test (6 MWT).

Results

knee pain, balance indices, 6 MWT, and WOMAC index were significantly improved after intervention in both experimental and control groups (P < 0.05) while more knee pain relief, better balance performance, and more active knee flexion ROM were found in the vibration group in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Local vibration may increase the effectiveness of conventional physiotherapy protocol by reducing pain perception and improving balance control and active knee flexion ROM in women with knee OA. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different protocols of local vibration training on knee OA symptoms.

Osteoarthritis;Knee;Vibration;Pain Osteoarthritis;Knee;Vibration;Pain http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20837 Somayeh Mohamadi Somayeh Mohamadi Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502, Fax: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502, Fax: +98-2333654180 Jamileh Moghimi Jamileh Moghimi Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Ahmad Tabesh Ahmad Tabesh Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20841 Association of Musculoskeletal Complaints With Psychosocial Factors Among Nurses in Semnan Hospitals Association of Musculoskeletal Complaints With Psychosocial Factors Among Nurses in Semnan Hospitals research-article research-article Background

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common problems among nurses and are associated with many underlying occupational factors.

Objectives

The aim of the study was to evaluate MSDs in nurses regarding psychosocial stress status at work.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all nurses who worked at Semnan City hospitals in 2011 were enrolled. Musculoskeletal symptoms and stress levels were evaluated via Nordic questionnaire.

Results

A total of 286 nurses (89%) out of 320 registered nurses accepted to participate in this study. Female nurses constitute 73.5% of participants. Among the participants, 268 nurses (93.7%) expressed MSDs with involvement of at least one site. The most common MSDs were reported consecutively in low back (66.1%), neck (65.4%), and knee (59.4%). The mean of psychosocial score was 2.82 (95% CI, 2.75-2.89) that indicated a moderate level of stress in participants. A significant association between psychosocial stress and MSDs with involvement of at least one site including shoulders, upper back, elbows, and pelvis/legs was seen (adjusted OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.06-7.01; P = 0.04).

Conclusions

A high prevalence of self-reported MSDs was observed in association with psychosocial stress. To address MSDs, it is highly recommended to make some additional interventions to reduce psychosocial stress at work.

Background

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common problems among nurses and are associated with many underlying occupational factors.

Objectives

The aim of the study was to evaluate MSDs in nurses regarding psychosocial stress status at work.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all nurses who worked at Semnan City hospitals in 2011 were enrolled. Musculoskeletal symptoms and stress levels were evaluated via Nordic questionnaire.

Results

A total of 286 nurses (89%) out of 320 registered nurses accepted to participate in this study. Female nurses constitute 73.5% of participants. Among the participants, 268 nurses (93.7%) expressed MSDs with involvement of at least one site. The most common MSDs were reported consecutively in low back (66.1%), neck (65.4%), and knee (59.4%). The mean of psychosocial score was 2.82 (95% CI, 2.75-2.89) that indicated a moderate level of stress in participants. A significant association between psychosocial stress and MSDs with involvement of at least one site including shoulders, upper back, elbows, and pelvis/legs was seen (adjusted OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.06-7.01; P = 0.04).

Conclusions

A high prevalence of self-reported MSDs was observed in association with psychosocial stress. To address MSDs, it is highly recommended to make some additional interventions to reduce psychosocial stress at work.

Iran;Nurses;Hospital Iran;Nurses;Hospital http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20841 Daryoush Pahlevan Daryoush Pahlevan Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Maryam Azizzadeh Maryam Azizzadeh Kowsar Hospital, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Kowsar Hospital, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Atena Esmaili Atena Esmaili School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Majid Mirmohammadkhani Majid Mirmohammadkhani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125317634, Fax: +98-2333448999 Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125317634, Fax: +98-2333448999
en 10.17795/mejrh-20838 Adjustment Process in Retired Iranian Nurses Adjustment Process in Retired Iranian Nurses research-article research-article Conclusions

Retirement is an essential part of the work life cycle. Awareness of the factors that influence adjustment to retirement is vital to facilitate this process and to improve the health of retired health care providers.

Results

During data analysis, five themes emerged: “Identity threat”, “Negative interaction”, “Identity reconstruction”, “Supporting factors” and “Normal life”. In addition, the explanatory theory of adjustment to retirement was produced.

Objectives

This study aimed to explore the adjustment process to retirement in Iranian retired nurses.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 23 participants were recruited from 2010 to 2011. Data was collected through semistructured interviews with retired nurses in Semnan, Iran. Qualitative data from the transcribed interviews and field notes were analyzed by making constant comparisons and using the grounded theory methodology developed by Strauss and Corbin. Data gathering was discontinued when data saturation was achieved. The adjustment process was explored in retired iranian nurses.

Background

Retirement is a complex social phenomenon and it is an expected part of life stages. Transition to this period is often associated with a loss of life balance and identity issues. The number of retired nurses is increasing and some nurses are experiencing difficulties adjusting to their retirement.

Conclusions

Retirement is an essential part of the work life cycle. Awareness of the factors that influence adjustment to retirement is vital to facilitate this process and to improve the health of retired health care providers.

Results

During data analysis, five themes emerged: “Identity threat”, “Negative interaction”, “Identity reconstruction”, “Supporting factors” and “Normal life”. In addition, the explanatory theory of adjustment to retirement was produced.

Objectives

This study aimed to explore the adjustment process to retirement in Iranian retired nurses.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 23 participants were recruited from 2010 to 2011. Data was collected through semistructured interviews with retired nurses in Semnan, Iran. Qualitative data from the transcribed interviews and field notes were analyzed by making constant comparisons and using the grounded theory methodology developed by Strauss and Corbin. Data gathering was discontinued when data saturation was achieved. The adjustment process was explored in retired iranian nurses.

Background

Retirement is a complex social phenomenon and it is an expected part of life stages. Transition to this period is often associated with a loss of life balance and identity issues. The number of retired nurses is increasing and some nurses are experiencing difficulties adjusting to their retirement.

Nurses;Retirement;Social Adjustment Nurses;Retirement;Social Adjustment http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20838 Monir Nobahar Monir Nobahar Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Nursing and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654170, Fax: +98-2333654209 Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Nursing and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Nursing and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654170, Fax: +98-2333654209 Fazlollah Ahmadi Fazlollah Ahmadi Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemah Alhani Fatemah Alhani Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, IR Iran Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20840 Oral Stereognosis in Children With Cleft Palate and Normal Children Oral Stereognosis in Children With Cleft Palate and Normal Children research-article research-article Patients and Methods

The study population comprised 20 children with cleft palate, six to nine years old, after first surgery, with normal intelligence, and 40 normal children with normal IQ levels and no speech-language disorders. In this cross-sectional study, oral stereognosis was investigated by identification of objects with different shapes and surface alterations, when placed in the mouth and without visual aid. Thirteen pieces of 5 × 5 × 1 mm dimensions were used, affixed by dental floss to prevent swallowing.

Background

There is an assumption that oral senses have important roles in development and production of speech sounds.

Objectives

The aim of this study was comparison of oral stereognosis ability and response time in two groups of children with cleft palate as well as normal children.

Results

There was a significant difference between the oral stereognosis and response time (recognition time) of children with cleft palate and that of normal children (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Cleft of the palate area can significantly decrease the intraoral sensations, resulting in elongation of the diagnosis time.

Patients and Methods

The study population comprised 20 children with cleft palate, six to nine years old, after first surgery, with normal intelligence, and 40 normal children with normal IQ levels and no speech-language disorders. In this cross-sectional study, oral stereognosis was investigated by identification of objects with different shapes and surface alterations, when placed in the mouth and without visual aid. Thirteen pieces of 5 × 5 × 1 mm dimensions were used, affixed by dental floss to prevent swallowing.

Background

There is an assumption that oral senses have important roles in development and production of speech sounds.

Objectives

The aim of this study was comparison of oral stereognosis ability and response time in two groups of children with cleft palate as well as normal children.

Results

There was a significant difference between the oral stereognosis and response time (recognition time) of children with cleft palate and that of normal children (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Cleft of the palate area can significantly decrease the intraoral sensations, resulting in elongation of the diagnosis time.

Oral Stereognosis; Cleft Palate; Speech Oral Stereognosis; Cleft Palate; Speech http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20840 Jalal Bakhtiyari Jalal Bakhtiyari Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Hooshang Dadgar Hooshang Dadgar Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2177533939, Fax: +98-217636042 Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2177533939, Fax: +98-217636042 Ali Sadolahi Ali Sadolahi Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi Ahmad Reza Khatoonabadi Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Speech Therapy Department, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20844 The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Vocal Features of Children The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Vocal Features of Children research-article research-article Conclusions

Significant difference in the fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, silence duration, friction duration, vocalization duration, and vocal cords contact quality index between the two groups was observed (P < 0.01).

Results

The mean of fundamental frequency for the hearing loss children and the control group were 323.04 Hz and 267.53 Hz, jitter 10.05% and 1.52%, shimmer 17.24 and 5.07, silence duration 29.40% and 17.02%, friction duration 17.55% and 34.52% and vocalization duration 14.71% and 28.65%, and vocal cords contact quality index 39.93% and 47.77%, respectively.

Patients and Methods

The current study was a comparative cross-sectional descriptive analysis of primary school students with severe to deep hearing loss disorder (n = 17) and normal students (n = 17) of the same age and gender. Data were collected using Speech Studio software and Laryngograph apparatus. To compare parameters between the two groups T-test (P < 0.05) was performed.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of hearing loss on acoustic properties of voice through acoustic analysis of some vocal parameters in two groups of children with moderately severe or deep hearing loss, and normal children of the same age and gender.

Background

It is difficult to determine the effect of hearing loss pathologic factors on the vocal features rather than other parts of speech, due to the complication of nature of voice, its vast range of changes, and lack of necessary standards and criteria.

Conclusions

Significant difference in the fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, silence duration, friction duration, vocalization duration, and vocal cords contact quality index between the two groups was observed (P < 0.01).

Results

The mean of fundamental frequency for the hearing loss children and the control group were 323.04 Hz and 267.53 Hz, jitter 10.05% and 1.52%, shimmer 17.24 and 5.07, silence duration 29.40% and 17.02%, friction duration 17.55% and 34.52% and vocalization duration 14.71% and 28.65%, and vocal cords contact quality index 39.93% and 47.77%, respectively.

Patients and Methods

The current study was a comparative cross-sectional descriptive analysis of primary school students with severe to deep hearing loss disorder (n = 17) and normal students (n = 17) of the same age and gender. Data were collected using Speech Studio software and Laryngograph apparatus. To compare parameters between the two groups T-test (P < 0.05) was performed.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of hearing loss on acoustic properties of voice through acoustic analysis of some vocal parameters in two groups of children with moderately severe or deep hearing loss, and normal children of the same age and gender.

Background

It is difficult to determine the effect of hearing loss pathologic factors on the vocal features rather than other parts of speech, due to the complication of nature of voice, its vast range of changes, and lack of necessary standards and criteria.

Hearing Loss;Friction;Voice, Acoustic Parameters;Electrolaryngograph Hearing Loss;Friction;Voice, Acoustic Parameters;Electrolaryngograph http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20844 Fatemeh Kasbi Fatemeh Kasbi Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Ali Sadollahi Ali Sadollahi Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Jalal Bakhtiyari Jalal Bakhtiyari Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Marziyeh Maddah Marziyeh Maddah Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Maryam Mokhlesin Maryam Mokhlesin Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-2333654209 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR IranRehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation College, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation College, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-2333654209
en 10.17795/mejrh-20843 Relationship Between Gender and Motor Skills in Preschoolers Relationship Between Gender and Motor Skills in Preschoolers research-article research-article Conclusions

Results of the current study showed that at preschool stage girls had higher performance compared to boys in fine motor skills and at preschool stage boys had significantly higher performance compared to girls in gross motor skills. Hence, it seems to be necessary to train preschool authorities in teaching fine and gross motor skills, considering the gender.

Patients and Methods

The current descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 91 children (51 girls and 40 boys), with the mean age of 6.4 (SD ± 0.2). Multi-stage sampling method was employed on preschoolers in Semnan city, Iran; and data was analyzed using the Lincoln-Oseretsky motor development scale.

Results

Results of the current study showed no significant difference between balance skills and coordination of arm and leg movements in preschool girls and boys, but significant difference was observed between the catcher throwing skills (P < 0.001), objects balance (P < 0.001), jumping skills (P < 0.001), speed and hands fundamental movement skills (P < 0.001), eye-hand coordination (P < 0.001), and general motor skills (P < 0.002).

Background

Motor skills play an important role in daily skills and learning of children. Hence, any disorders in their motor skills cause weaknesses and problems in learning and social skills.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare motor skills between preschool girls and boys in Semnan city, Iran. Results can be used by preschool education authorities to prioritize and focus on learning programs.

Conclusions

Results of the current study showed that at preschool stage girls had higher performance compared to boys in fine motor skills and at preschool stage boys had significantly higher performance compared to girls in gross motor skills. Hence, it seems to be necessary to train preschool authorities in teaching fine and gross motor skills, considering the gender.

Patients and Methods

The current descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 91 children (51 girls and 40 boys), with the mean age of 6.4 (SD ± 0.2). Multi-stage sampling method was employed on preschoolers in Semnan city, Iran; and data was analyzed using the Lincoln-Oseretsky motor development scale.

Results

Results of the current study showed no significant difference between balance skills and coordination of arm and leg movements in preschool girls and boys, but significant difference was observed between the catcher throwing skills (P < 0.001), objects balance (P < 0.001), jumping skills (P < 0.001), speed and hands fundamental movement skills (P < 0.001), eye-hand coordination (P < 0.001), and general motor skills (P < 0.002).

Background

Motor skills play an important role in daily skills and learning of children. Hence, any disorders in their motor skills cause weaknesses and problems in learning and social skills.

Objectives

The current study aimed to compare motor skills between preschool girls and boys in Semnan city, Iran. Results can be used by preschool education authorities to prioritize and focus on learning programs.

Scales;Motor Skills;Gender;Students Scales;Motor Skills;Gender;Students http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20843 Ali Akbar Pahlevanian Ali Akbar Pahlevanian Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333322332, Fax: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333322332, Fax: +98-2333654180 Zahra Ahmadizadeh Zahra Ahmadizadeh Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20836 A Study of Social Work in General Hospitals in Iran and Designing a Model for Social Work Services A Study of Social Work in General Hospitals in Iran and Designing a Model for Social Work Services research-article research-article Conclusions

The duties of social workers have been defined in the three domains of psychosocial health, psychosocial treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation.

Results

The findings of the research indicate that social work headquarters have had a weak performance in introducing social work as a specialized profession. Their performance in establishing relationship with scientific centers has been evaluated as weak. The findings also show that these headquarters do not use social work in executive units, training courses for augmenting the scientific knowledge of social workers are inefficient, the description of duties of social workers at hospitals cannot meet the demands of visitors, nor do they correspond to the professional and scientific principles of social work, there is no sufficient support for social work and there is no enough supervision over their work.

Objectives

The goal of this research is to study how social work services are provided by hospitals and offer a pattern of social work services at Iranian general hospital.

Materials and Methods

The research work has been conducted in two qualitative and quantitative methods. In the quantitative study, the researcher has used a questionnaire while in the qualitative section social work sections of hospitals have been studies using a case study method. The questionnaires were sent to 552 social workers and in the case study sector seven general hospitals based in Tehran, Shiraz, Semnan, Hormuzgan, Zahedan, North Khorasan and Lorestan were chosen as samples. The operational pattern has been designed on the basis of Delphi method.

Background

Social work services are multilateral services for dimensions of prevention, social worker are a professional people who work with patient in hospital, the aims of their works are psycho-social health.

Conclusions

The duties of social workers have been defined in the three domains of psychosocial health, psychosocial treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation.

Results

The findings of the research indicate that social work headquarters have had a weak performance in introducing social work as a specialized profession. Their performance in establishing relationship with scientific centers has been evaluated as weak. The findings also show that these headquarters do not use social work in executive units, training courses for augmenting the scientific knowledge of social workers are inefficient, the description of duties of social workers at hospitals cannot meet the demands of visitors, nor do they correspond to the professional and scientific principles of social work, there is no sufficient support for social work and there is no enough supervision over their work.

Objectives

The goal of this research is to study how social work services are provided by hospitals and offer a pattern of social work services at Iranian general hospital.

Materials and Methods

The research work has been conducted in two qualitative and quantitative methods. In the quantitative study, the researcher has used a questionnaire while in the qualitative section social work sections of hospitals have been studies using a case study method. The questionnaires were sent to 552 social workers and in the case study sector seven general hospitals based in Tehran, Shiraz, Semnan, Hormuzgan, Zahedan, North Khorasan and Lorestan were chosen as samples. The operational pattern has been designed on the basis of Delphi method.

Background

Social work services are multilateral services for dimensions of prevention, social worker are a professional people who work with patient in hospital, the aims of their works are psycho-social health.

Social Work;General Hospital;Social Services Social Work;General Hospital;Social Services http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20836 Ghoncheh Raheb Ghoncheh Raheb Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Velenjak St., Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122180064 Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Velenjak St., Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122180064 Jafar Jandaghi Jafar Jandaghi Deputy of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Deputy of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Alireza Khani Alireza Khani Ettelaat Daily Newspaper, Tehran, IR Iran Ettelaat Daily Newspaper, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-20842 Attitude and Knowledge of Medical Sciences Students Toward the Disabled Elderly Attitude and Knowledge of Medical Sciences Students Toward the Disabled Elderly research-article research-article Background

Attitude and knowledge of the different groups of society play an important role in facilitating living conditions and meeting the needs of the disabled elderly.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of medical sciences students toward the disabled elderly from different angles.

Patients and Methods

Ninety students from Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 60 females and 30 males, participated in the current study. To evaluate the attitude of the population understudy “the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled People (SADP)” 24-item questionnaire was employed, and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics.

Results

According to the results of the current study, 14.5% of the population understudy advised the elderly not to show in public due to traffic problems, or had no idea in this regard. Also, 56.66% of the subjects believed that the government should cover the elderly costs; and 78.9% of the subjects believed that the design of the governmental offices and public places were not suitable for the elderly. Also, 80% recommended that the disabled elderly should live with their families.

Conclusions

The results of the current study showed that the level of knowledge among students varied regarding the needs and factors affecting social participation of the elderly. According to the results of the current study, only 50% of the participants had proper attitude toward the elderly problems.

Background

Attitude and knowledge of the different groups of society play an important role in facilitating living conditions and meeting the needs of the disabled elderly.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of medical sciences students toward the disabled elderly from different angles.

Patients and Methods

Ninety students from Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 60 females and 30 males, participated in the current study. To evaluate the attitude of the population understudy “the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled People (SADP)” 24-item questionnaire was employed, and the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics.

Results

According to the results of the current study, 14.5% of the population understudy advised the elderly not to show in public due to traffic problems, or had no idea in this regard. Also, 56.66% of the subjects believed that the government should cover the elderly costs; and 78.9% of the subjects believed that the design of the governmental offices and public places were not suitable for the elderly. Also, 80% recommended that the disabled elderly should live with their families.

Conclusions

The results of the current study showed that the level of knowledge among students varied regarding the needs and factors affecting social participation of the elderly. According to the results of the current study, only 50% of the participants had proper attitude toward the elderly problems.

Aged;Attitude;Personal Satisfaction Aged;Attitude;Personal Satisfaction http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20842 Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126312621 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126312621 Maryam Binesh Maryam Binesh Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Afsaneh Abri Afsaneh Abri Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh.21794 Welcome to the First Issue Welcome to the First Issue editorial editorial Rehabilitation; Health Rehabilitation; Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=21794 Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126312621 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126312621 Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran