Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East J Rehabil Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com 2423-4451 10.5812/mejrh. en jalali 2017 5 28 gregorian 2017 5 28 1 2
en 10.17795/mejrh-23471 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid Treatment on Laminin Alteration of the Sciatic Nerve in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid Treatment on Laminin Alteration of the Sciatic Nerve in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats research-article research-article Background

Neuropathy is one of the most complications of diabetes that may be associated with changes in the structure and function of the basement membranes in nerves. Laminin is one of the most important components of basement membranes in sciatic nerve.

Objectives

In this study, the protective effects of Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) as an antioxidant agent on blood glucose level, body weight and laminin expression in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats has been evaluated.

Materials and Methods

24 adult male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, untreated diabetic and diabetic treated with ALA. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). 12 weeks after treatment, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured and then rats were anesthetized and sciatic nerves were removed and alterations in laminin expression has been evaluated by immunohistochemical study and Real time PCR method. Statistical evaluation was carried out by using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey test.

Results

Untreated diabetic rats showed a significant increase in laminin expression in the perineurium, around the Schwann cells and blood vessels walls of the sciatic nerves (P < 0.05). ALA treatment did not affect on body weight, but significantly decreased blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). ALA treatment significantly decreased laminin expression only in the blood vessels walls of sciatic nerves (P < 0.05). Laminin β1 mRNA level in sciatic nerve of untreated diabetic rats increased 0.6 fold compared to control rats (P < 0.05). Although ALA decreased this up regulation but it was not significant.

Conclusions

The results indicated that untreated diabetic neuropathy in rat might be associated with increased laminin expression in sciatic nerve and also it may be assumed that ALA treatment protected the blood vessels walls of nerves against laminin over expression in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Background

Neuropathy is one of the most complications of diabetes that may be associated with changes in the structure and function of the basement membranes in nerves. Laminin is one of the most important components of basement membranes in sciatic nerve.

Objectives

In this study, the protective effects of Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) as an antioxidant agent on blood glucose level, body weight and laminin expression in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats has been evaluated.

Materials and Methods

24 adult male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, untreated diabetic and diabetic treated with ALA. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). 12 weeks after treatment, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured and then rats were anesthetized and sciatic nerves were removed and alterations in laminin expression has been evaluated by immunohistochemical study and Real time PCR method. Statistical evaluation was carried out by using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey test.

Results

Untreated diabetic rats showed a significant increase in laminin expression in the perineurium, around the Schwann cells and blood vessels walls of the sciatic nerves (P < 0.05). ALA treatment did not affect on body weight, but significantly decreased blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). ALA treatment significantly decreased laminin expression only in the blood vessels walls of sciatic nerves (P < 0.05). Laminin β1 mRNA level in sciatic nerve of untreated diabetic rats increased 0.6 fold compared to control rats (P < 0.05). Although ALA decreased this up regulation but it was not significant.

Conclusions

The results indicated that untreated diabetic neuropathy in rat might be associated with increased laminin expression in sciatic nerve and also it may be assumed that ALA treatment protected the blood vessels walls of nerves against laminin over expression in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Sciatic Nerve;Laminin;Alpha Lipoic Acid;Rat Sciatic Nerve;Laminin;Alpha Lipoic Acid;Rat http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23471 Mohammad Reza Aldaghi Mohammad Reza Aldaghi Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125310972, Fax: +98-2313354161, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9125310972, Fax: +98-2313354161, Mojtaba Sankian Mojtaba Sankian Immunology Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Medical School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Immunology Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Medical School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Hamid Reza Sameni Hamid Reza Sameni Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Manouchehr Safari Manouchehr Safari Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-23470 Endomorphs Show Higher Postural Sway Than Other Somatotypes Subjects Endomorphs Show Higher Postural Sway Than Other Somatotypes Subjects research-article research-article Background

The somatotype may influence the balance control ability. The quality of balance performance is an important factor to prevent injuries during sport activities.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of somatotype on the static and dynamic balance indices as well as falling risk index.

Patients and Methods

A total of 141 university student healthy young females were recruited. We measured anthropometric somatotypes (10 parameters, Heath-Carter’s method) and the mean of center of pressure (COP) displacement on a Biodex balance system during unilateral (static balance indices) and bilateral standing (dynamic balance indices) with their eyes open and eyes closed.

Results

In this research, the frequency of somatotypes was as follows: endomorph, 51; mesomorph, 43; and ectomorph, 47. During dynamic tests, the endomorph group showed significantly higher COP sway (P < 0.01) and falling risk index (P < 0.05) than other somatotype groups did. The mesomorph group showed significantly better postural control during dynamic balance control test with eyes closed (P < 0.05) in comparison to the other somatotype groups.

Conclusions

The mesomorph subjects had a higher degree of static and dynamic balance control, while a lower degree of balance control was found among endomorph subjects, especially when standing on the unlocked balance platform with both eyes open and eyes closed.

Background

The somatotype may influence the balance control ability. The quality of balance performance is an important factor to prevent injuries during sport activities.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of somatotype on the static and dynamic balance indices as well as falling risk index.

Patients and Methods

A total of 141 university student healthy young females were recruited. We measured anthropometric somatotypes (10 parameters, Heath-Carter’s method) and the mean of center of pressure (COP) displacement on a Biodex balance system during unilateral (static balance indices) and bilateral standing (dynamic balance indices) with their eyes open and eyes closed.

Results

In this research, the frequency of somatotypes was as follows: endomorph, 51; mesomorph, 43; and ectomorph, 47. During dynamic tests, the endomorph group showed significantly higher COP sway (P < 0.01) and falling risk index (P < 0.05) than other somatotype groups did. The mesomorph group showed significantly better postural control during dynamic balance control test with eyes closed (P < 0.05) in comparison to the other somatotype groups.

Conclusions

The mesomorph subjects had a higher degree of static and dynamic balance control, while a lower degree of balance control was found among endomorph subjects, especially when standing on the unlocked balance platform with both eyes open and eyes closed.

Mesomorph;Endomorph;Ectomorph;Balance Control Mesomorph;Endomorph;Ectomorph;Balance Control http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23470 Afshin. Samaei Afshin. Samaei Internal Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Internal Medicine Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502, Fax: +98-2333654180, Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502, Fax: +98-2333654180, Abdolhamid Hajihasani Abdolhamid Hajihasani Physiotherapy Department, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Physiotherapy Department, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-23611 Evaluating the Level of Learning Motivation Among the Rehabilitation Students at the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences of Tehran, Iran; During 2011-2012 Evaluating the Level of Learning Motivation Among the Rehabilitation Students at the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences of Tehran, Iran; During 2011-2012 research-article research-article Conclusions

Considering the level of learning motivation among the students in aspects of self-efficacy conception, self-management, and communication abilities, it is recommended to provide programs to develop these characteristics by cooperative learning method based on social constructivism theory.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the rehabilitation students of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences who were selected by the total population sampling method. The validity and reliability of the learning motivation questionnaire were evaluated by its implementation in the study; an independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way ANOVA analysis were used to analyze the data.

Results

The mean and standard deviation of the population under study were 159.853 ± 17.838 (out of maximum 220). It means that the score is farther down cut of point. The social work students got the highest scores in learning motivation, followed by the students of technical orthopedics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech therapy, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean score of learning motivation among the five evaluated disciplines, based on the ANOVA (F = 3.085; sig = 0.016). The level of learning motivation among the M.Sc and Ph.D students was higher than that of B.S students. There was a significant relationship between the level of learning motivation and age, gender, and marital status variables (P = 0.01).

Background

Learning motivation among the students of rehabilitation, as one of the main challenges in the universities, leaves different impacts on the outcome of learning systems.

Objectives

Considering the critical role of rehabilitation services provided by rehabilitation graduates, the current study aimed to determine the level of learning motivation among the rehabilitation students focusing on different aspects of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and communication abilities.

Conclusions

Considering the level of learning motivation among the students in aspects of self-efficacy conception, self-management, and communication abilities, it is recommended to provide programs to develop these characteristics by cooperative learning method based on social constructivism theory.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the rehabilitation students of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences who were selected by the total population sampling method. The validity and reliability of the learning motivation questionnaire were evaluated by its implementation in the study; an independent t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way ANOVA analysis were used to analyze the data.

Results

The mean and standard deviation of the population under study were 159.853 ± 17.838 (out of maximum 220). It means that the score is farther down cut of point. The social work students got the highest scores in learning motivation, followed by the students of technical orthopedics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech therapy, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean score of learning motivation among the five evaluated disciplines, based on the ANOVA (F = 3.085; sig = 0.016). The level of learning motivation among the M.Sc and Ph.D students was higher than that of B.S students. There was a significant relationship between the level of learning motivation and age, gender, and marital status variables (P = 0.01).

Background

Learning motivation among the students of rehabilitation, as one of the main challenges in the universities, leaves different impacts on the outcome of learning systems.

Objectives

Considering the critical role of rehabilitation services provided by rehabilitation graduates, the current study aimed to determine the level of learning motivation among the rehabilitation students focusing on different aspects of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and communication abilities.

Learning; Motivation; Self-; Self-management; Communication; Abilities; Rehabilitation Learning; Motivation; Self-; Self-management; Communication; Abilities; Rehabilitation http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23611 Ghoncheh Raheb Ghoncheh Raheb Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122180064 Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122180064 Alireza Khani Alireza Khani Ettelaat Daily Newspaper, Tehran, IR Iran Ettelaat Daily Newspaper, Tehran, IR Iran Jafar Jandaghi Jafar Jandaghi Deputy of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Deputy of Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mohammad Sabzi Khoshnami Mohammad Sabzi Khoshnami Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Social Work Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-23609 Comparing Verb Fluency With Verbal Fluency in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease Comparing Verb Fluency With Verbal Fluency in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease research-article research-article Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Patients with AD have impaired semantic knowledge of nouns and verbs as well as the ability to verb retrieval.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare verbal fluency and verb fluency and to investigate the association between severity and types of fluency (verbal-verb) in patients with AD.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) with AD. The participants were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a neurologist made the diagnosis of AD. In order to examine verb and verbal fluency, the subjects were asked to name any words that they remember in one minute. Scoring was based on the correct number of items and data analysis was performed by SPSS 16.

Results

There was a significant positive correlation between letter fluency and verb fluency (P = 0.013), letter fluency and semantic fluency (P < 0.001), and verb fluency and semantic fluency (P = 0.002) in patients with AD. The results showed significant differences between letter fluency (P < 0.001), verb fluency (P = 0.034), and semantic fluency (P < 0.001) among patients with different severity of AD. In addition, the most frequently produced words in letter fluency were /a/, /s/, and /f/, consecutively. The mean ratio of semantic fluency to letter fluency was 3:5.

Conclusions

In patients with AD, verb fluency was impaired more than semantic fluency was. Verb fluency task is an important criterion in diagnosis of early dementia. Therefore, the investigation of verb fluency in susceptible individuals with dementia might prevents the progression of the disorder.

Background

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Patients with AD have impaired semantic knowledge of nouns and verbs as well as the ability to verb retrieval.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare verbal fluency and verb fluency and to investigate the association between severity and types of fluency (verbal-verb) in patients with AD.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) with AD. The participants were assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a neurologist made the diagnosis of AD. In order to examine verb and verbal fluency, the subjects were asked to name any words that they remember in one minute. Scoring was based on the correct number of items and data analysis was performed by SPSS 16.

Results

There was a significant positive correlation between letter fluency and verb fluency (P = 0.013), letter fluency and semantic fluency (P < 0.001), and verb fluency and semantic fluency (P = 0.002) in patients with AD. The results showed significant differences between letter fluency (P < 0.001), verb fluency (P = 0.034), and semantic fluency (P < 0.001) among patients with different severity of AD. In addition, the most frequently produced words in letter fluency were /a/, /s/, and /f/, consecutively. The mean ratio of semantic fluency to letter fluency was 3:5.

Conclusions

In patients with AD, verb fluency was impaired more than semantic fluency was. Verb fluency task is an important criterion in diagnosis of early dementia. Therefore, the investigation of verb fluency in susceptible individuals with dementia might prevents the progression of the disorder.

Speech Disorders; Verbs; Verbal Fluency; Alzheimer's Disease Speech Disorders; Verbs; Verbal Fluency; Alzheimer's Disease http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23609 Seyedeh Zohreh Mousavi Seyedeh Zohreh Mousavi Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Azar Mehri Azar Mehri Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2177533939, Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2177533939, Saman Maroufizadeh Saman Maroufizadeh Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health, Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, IR Iran Samaneh Emadi Koochak Samaneh Emadi Koochak Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Speech Therapy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-24268 The Criteria of Choosing a Right Partner From the Point of View of Unmarried Students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences The Criteria of Choosing a Right Partner From the Point of View of Unmarried Students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences research-article research-article Background

Regarding the process of increasing the divorce rate in recent years and youth population, the awareness among the youth, especially the university students, about marriage and criteria of choosing a right partner for proper planning to preserve family is of great importance.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the viewpoint of unmarried students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences about the criteria of choosing the right partner.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 271 unmarried students at Semnan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2011. A researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic data (10 questions), the criteria for choosing a partner (36 questions) and 5 open questions were handed out among the students. The questionnaires were collected and the data were analyzed using KS test, t, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results

From the point of view of the students, the criteria such as loyalty, commitment to the ethics, personality traits, compatibility and ethical understanding are of top 5 priorities for choosing right partner, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the significance level of some criteria and gender so that the psychological and social criteria (commitment to the ethical principles and accountability) and aesthetic or physical criteria (beauty and good-looking appearance) were so important for girls and boys, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the study showed that, from the point of view of the student, the sustainable and fundamental criteria for choosing the right partner are of great importance. Accordingly, it is recommended that, by considering the cultural, religious and social criteria, the opportunities for shaping the positive personality, psychological and social traits and institutionalizing the ethics in society should be provided. Public education plans, especially training the families can play an important role in this regard.

Background

Regarding the process of increasing the divorce rate in recent years and youth population, the awareness among the youth, especially the university students, about marriage and criteria of choosing a right partner for proper planning to preserve family is of great importance.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the viewpoint of unmarried students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences about the criteria of choosing the right partner.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 271 unmarried students at Semnan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2011. A researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic data (10 questions), the criteria for choosing a partner (36 questions) and 5 open questions were handed out among the students. The questionnaires were collected and the data were analyzed using KS test, t, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results

From the point of view of the students, the criteria such as loyalty, commitment to the ethics, personality traits, compatibility and ethical understanding are of top 5 priorities for choosing right partner, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the significance level of some criteria and gender so that the psychological and social criteria (commitment to the ethical principles and accountability) and aesthetic or physical criteria (beauty and good-looking appearance) were so important for girls and boys, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the study showed that, from the point of view of the student, the sustainable and fundamental criteria for choosing the right partner are of great importance. Accordingly, it is recommended that, by considering the cultural, religious and social criteria, the opportunities for shaping the positive personality, psychological and social traits and institutionalizing the ethics in society should be provided. Public education plans, especially training the families can play an important role in this regard.

Criteria;Mate Selection;Students;Health Occupations;Viewpoints Criteria;Mate Selection;Students;Health Occupations;Viewpoints http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24268 Mehri Ansari Niaki Mehri Ansari Niaki Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654192 Fax: +98-2333654209 Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654192 Fax: +98-2333654209 Fatemeh Ahadi Fatemeh Ahadi Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Ali Bagherzadeh Ali Bagherzadeh Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Health, Nursing Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-24269 The Relation Between Clinical Measurements of Plantar Characteristics and Static and Dynamic Balance Indices The Relation Between Clinical Measurements of Plantar Characteristics and Static and Dynamic Balance Indices research-article research-article Conclusions

It seems that plantar changes have insignificant effect on static and dynamic indices evaluated by the Biodex Balance System.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the relation between these structural characteristics and balance indices.

Patients and Methods

The study population was 100 male and female students from Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. To evaluate plantar arch, indices such as heel height, arch angle index, rear angle, navicular drop, longitudinal arch angle and footprint angle were recorded and Staheli and Denis methods were used. Static and dynamic data were recorded using the Biodex Balance System.

Results

There was a significant correlation between arch height, and static and dynamic balance indices (maximum correlation coefficient = 0.46, moderate correlation coefficient); also, there was a direct significant correlation between rear and footprint angles and some other balance indices (correlation coefficient = 0.2, weak correlation). There was a significant inverse association between navicular drop and balance indices (maximum correlation coefficient = 0.3, moderate correlation coefficient). Evaluating arch and longitudinal arch angle indices by the Staheli and Denis correlation methods showed insignificant association between these variables and balance indices (P > 0.05).

Background

None of plantar arch characteristics such as arch height, heel varus and arch flexibility can affect balance indices in different manners.

Conclusions

It seems that plantar changes have insignificant effect on static and dynamic indices evaluated by the Biodex Balance System.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the relation between these structural characteristics and balance indices.

Patients and Methods

The study population was 100 male and female students from Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. To evaluate plantar arch, indices such as heel height, arch angle index, rear angle, navicular drop, longitudinal arch angle and footprint angle were recorded and Staheli and Denis methods were used. Static and dynamic data were recorded using the Biodex Balance System.

Results

There was a significant correlation between arch height, and static and dynamic balance indices (maximum correlation coefficient = 0.46, moderate correlation coefficient); also, there was a direct significant correlation between rear and footprint angles and some other balance indices (correlation coefficient = 0.2, weak correlation). There was a significant inverse association between navicular drop and balance indices (maximum correlation coefficient = 0.3, moderate correlation coefficient). Evaluating arch and longitudinal arch angle indices by the Staheli and Denis correlation methods showed insignificant association between these variables and balance indices (P > 0.05).

Background

None of plantar arch characteristics such as arch height, heel varus and arch flexibility can affect balance indices in different manners.

Foot Structure;Static Balance;Dynamic Balance Foot Structure;Static Balance;Dynamic Balance http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24269 Rozita Hedayati Rozita Hedayati Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126090589 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126090589 Maryam Hojati Shargh Maryam Hojati Shargh Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Toktam Soltani Toktam Soltani Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mohammad Saeb Mohammad Saeb Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Raheb Ghorbani Raheb Ghorbani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Abdolhamid Hajihasani Abdolhamid Hajihasani Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-24365 Comparative Study of Static Stretch and Hold Relax on Increasing the Motion Range of Knee Extension and Flexibility of Shortened Hamstring Muscles of Male Students in Semnan Comparative Study of Static Stretch and Hold Relax on Increasing the Motion Range of Knee Extension and Flexibility of Shortened Hamstring Muscles of Male Students in Semnan research-article research-article Background

Hamstring muscles play an important role in functional activities and relaxation and most people around the world suffer from the shortened muscles. Different methods of repairing were suggested and there were disagreements with regard to determination of one technique with high efficiency.

Objectives

This study aimed to introduce more effective method, either a static stretch or hold relax technique.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 60 male students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (age range, 18- 25 years) who had shortened hamstring muscles were randomly categorized into three groups. One group was under test for hold relax and the other group was tested for static stretch during 4 weeks and three times a week. The third control group received no intervention. To assess these three groups, the motion range of knee extension was measured by a goniometer before and after the sessions.

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that both techniques (static stretch and hold relax) have a significant effect on flexibility and increasing the motion range of knee. But neither is superior regarding their effect.

Results

Results of this study showed that both methods have a significant effect on increasing the motion range of knee (P < 0.001). But no significant difference was observed between the static stretch and hold-relax techniques regarding increasing the motion range of knee (P=0.246).

Background

Hamstring muscles play an important role in functional activities and relaxation and most people around the world suffer from the shortened muscles. Different methods of repairing were suggested and there were disagreements with regard to determination of one technique with high efficiency.

Objectives

This study aimed to introduce more effective method, either a static stretch or hold relax technique.

Patients and Methods

In this study, 60 male students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences (age range, 18- 25 years) who had shortened hamstring muscles were randomly categorized into three groups. One group was under test for hold relax and the other group was tested for static stretch during 4 weeks and three times a week. The third control group received no intervention. To assess these three groups, the motion range of knee extension was measured by a goniometer before and after the sessions.

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that both techniques (static stretch and hold relax) have a significant effect on flexibility and increasing the motion range of knee. But neither is superior regarding their effect.

Results

Results of this study showed that both methods have a significant effect on increasing the motion range of knee (P < 0.001). But no significant difference was observed between the static stretch and hold-relax techniques regarding increasing the motion range of knee (P=0.246).

Static Stretching;Hold Relax;Shortened Hamstring Muscles Static Stretching;Hold Relax;Shortened Hamstring Muscles http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24365 Abdolhamid Haji Hasani Abdolhamid Haji Hasani Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2313354180, Fax+98-2313354180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2313354180, Fax+98-2313354180 Amir Hoshang Bakhtiari Amir Hoshang Bakhtiari Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mohammad Amoozadeh Khalili Mohammad Amoozadeh Khalili Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Rehabilitation Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-23170 Two Methods for Improvement of Short Hamstrings in Healthy Individuals Two Methods for Improvement of Short Hamstrings in Healthy Individuals research-article research-article Conclusions

The two treatment methods had similar effects and there were no significant difference between them, while significant improvement was seen in the experimental groups compared with the control group.

Background

Shortness of skeletal muscles may cause musculoskeletal disorders of body; improvement of these muscles may improve posture and body function.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ultrasound (US) together with stretch and hold relax (HR) techniques in increasing the muscle length.

Materials and Methods

It was a randomized trial with intention-to-treat analysis and assessor blinding. A total of 34 male students (18-24 years old) who had bilateral hamstring shortness (straight leg raise (SLR) < 65 degrees) were candidates for the study. Group one received US with stretching, group two received HR method and group three or control group did not receive any special treatment and had their normal daily living activities. Group one received stretching with 3 MHz continuous US (1.5 W/cm2) for four minutes. Group two (HR) received four cycles of HR training including 20 seconds of contraction and 10 seconds of relaxation. The hamstring muscle was passively taken to the end of the range. The assessment methods included passive SLR and passive knee extension (PKE), using goniometry.

Results

The results of the study (SLR and PKE) indicated that the mean of range of motion( ROM ) in the two treatment groups increased significantly during the treatment period, compared to the control group. Comparison of the two treatment methods, US with stretch and HR, revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of ROM in SLR and passive extension.

Conclusions

The two treatment methods had similar effects and there were no significant difference between them, while significant improvement was seen in the experimental groups compared with the control group.

Background

Shortness of skeletal muscles may cause musculoskeletal disorders of body; improvement of these muscles may improve posture and body function.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ultrasound (US) together with stretch and hold relax (HR) techniques in increasing the muscle length.

Materials and Methods

It was a randomized trial with intention-to-treat analysis and assessor blinding. A total of 34 male students (18-24 years old) who had bilateral hamstring shortness (straight leg raise (SLR) < 65 degrees) were candidates for the study. Group one received US with stretching, group two received HR method and group three or control group did not receive any special treatment and had their normal daily living activities. Group one received stretching with 3 MHz continuous US (1.5 W/cm2) for four minutes. Group two (HR) received four cycles of HR training including 20 seconds of contraction and 10 seconds of relaxation. The hamstring muscle was passively taken to the end of the range. The assessment methods included passive SLR and passive knee extension (PKE), using goniometry.

Results

The results of the study (SLR and PKE) indicated that the mean of range of motion( ROM ) in the two treatment groups increased significantly during the treatment period, compared to the control group. Comparison of the two treatment methods, US with stretch and HR, revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods in terms of ROM in SLR and passive extension.

Hold Relax;Ultrasound;Stretch;Short Hamstring Hold Relax;Ultrasound;Stretch;Short Hamstring http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=23170 Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Mohammad Amouzadeh Khalili Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-23-33654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180, Fax: +98-23-33654180 Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Amir Hoshang Bakhtiary Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Physiotherapy Department, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran