Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East J Rehabil Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com 2423-4451 10.5812/mejrh. en jalali 2017 5 30 gregorian 2017 5 30 3 2
en 10.17795/mejrh-35377 Treatment of Scoliosis-Evidence and Management (Review of the Literature) Treatment of Scoliosis-Evidence and Management (Review of the Literature) review-article review-article Context

Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk which includes lateral deviation, rotation, and a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Treatment is indicated for scoliosis because it may lead to negative consequences with regard to the quality of life and other health issues for some patients. The purpose of this review was to gather current, up-to-date information, and to search the recent articles on scoliosis for evidence of the different modes of treatment.

Evidence Acquisition

A PubMed search for review articles, prospective controlled trials (PCT), and randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed. The search terms were: 1) scoliosis, treatment (12,045 items found); 2) scoliosis, physiotherapy (776 items found); 3) scoliosis, brace treatment (1,447 items found); and 4) scoliosis, surgery (10,485 items found).

Results

When looking at the current literature, high quality evidence (level I) was found to support physical rehabilitation and brace treatments, while no evidence was found to support spinal fusion surgery. The numerous long-term complications that patients may face post-operation, and the lack of evidence for spinal fusion surgery indicate that there is no clear medical indication for this kind of treatment.

Conclusions

There is a high level of evidence for the conservative treatment of scoliosis, but there are varying levels of success in the different approaches. The better the correction of the curve, the better the end result and outcome for the patient. This is supported by the current evidence reviewed in this paper. Physiotherapy and bracing should be used and, specifically, those approaches using high corrective methods. Spinal fusion surgery is not supported by the current evidence. According to the literature, the long-term complications of surgery for scoliosis far outweigh the consequences of untreated scoliosis.

Context

Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and trunk which includes lateral deviation, rotation, and a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Treatment is indicated for scoliosis because it may lead to negative consequences with regard to the quality of life and other health issues for some patients. The purpose of this review was to gather current, up-to-date information, and to search the recent articles on scoliosis for evidence of the different modes of treatment.

Evidence Acquisition

A PubMed search for review articles, prospective controlled trials (PCT), and randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed. The search terms were: 1) scoliosis, treatment (12,045 items found); 2) scoliosis, physiotherapy (776 items found); 3) scoliosis, brace treatment (1,447 items found); and 4) scoliosis, surgery (10,485 items found).

Results

When looking at the current literature, high quality evidence (level I) was found to support physical rehabilitation and brace treatments, while no evidence was found to support spinal fusion surgery. The numerous long-term complications that patients may face post-operation, and the lack of evidence for spinal fusion surgery indicate that there is no clear medical indication for this kind of treatment.

Conclusions

There is a high level of evidence for the conservative treatment of scoliosis, but there are varying levels of success in the different approaches. The better the correction of the curve, the better the end result and outcome for the patient. This is supported by the current evidence reviewed in this paper. Physiotherapy and bracing should be used and, specifically, those approaches using high corrective methods. Spinal fusion surgery is not supported by the current evidence. According to the literature, the long-term complications of surgery for scoliosis far outweigh the consequences of untreated scoliosis.

Scoliosis;Physiotherapy;Brace Treatment;Surgery;Evidence;Management Scoliosis;Physiotherapy;Brace Treatment;Surgery;Evidence;Management http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35377 Hans-Rudolf Weiss Hans-Rudolf Weiss Gesundheitsforum Nahetal, Gensingen, Germany; Gesundheitsforum Nahetal, Gensingen, Germany. Tel: +49-06727894040 Gesundheitsforum Nahetal, Gensingen, Germany; Gesundheitsforum Nahetal, Gensingen, Germany. Tel: +49-06727894040 Deborah Turnbull Deborah Turnbull Maple Leaf Pharmacy and Clinic, Twickenham, United Kingdom Maple Leaf Pharmacy and Clinic, Twickenham, United Kingdom Nicos Tournavitis Nicos Tournavitis Scoliosis Best Practice Rehabilitation Services, Conservative Treatment Center for Spinal Deformities, Thessaloniki, Greece Scoliosis Best Practice Rehabilitation Services, Conservative Treatment Center for Spinal Deformities, Thessaloniki, Greece Maksym Borysov Maksym Borysov Orttech-Plus Rehabilitation Service, Kharkiv, Ukraine Orttech-Plus Rehabilitation Service, Kharkiv, Ukraine
en 10.17795/mejrh-33423 An Infant With Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia: A Case Report An Infant With Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

Since most of the symptoms of metabolic diseases in newborns are same as the signs of sepsis or other common diseases of this period, and also early diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses, especially in diseases such as hyperglycemia, can be influential in neural function of babies, it calls for serious attention and clinical vision of the doctors to stop mortality caused by such diseases by early consideration of serious complications.

Introduction

Glycine encephalopathy, also known as non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) represents a disorder characterized by elevated concentrations of glycine in all body tissues, especially in plasma and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). NKH is caused by deficiency in the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Most glycine encephalopathy cases occur during the neonatal period. The current report presents a case of NKH neonatal intractable seizures. Evaluating a sick neonate who presents with hypotonia, encephalopathy, and seizures is a diagnostic challenge; a high index of suspicion for timely diagnosis and treatment could prevent severe complications.

Case Presentation

The patient was a four-day-old baby girl in Iran admitted to the hospital due to hypotonia, lethargy and seizures. On the third day after discharge, the baby gradually lost the ability to suck milk and got sleepy and finally suffered from organ jump and seizures. Sepsis and antibiotics phenytoin tests were conducted and in metabolic testing, high level of glycine in blood and urine was reported and the patient was treated with sodium benzoate dextromethorphan and L-carnitine, after the start of the treatment, seizures and neurologic symptoms and alertness of the baby improved. The patient was discharged by continuing treatment after two weeks with seizure control, improved sucking reflexes and grasp.

Conclusions

Since most of the symptoms of metabolic diseases in newborns are same as the signs of sepsis or other common diseases of this period, and also early diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses, especially in diseases such as hyperglycemia, can be influential in neural function of babies, it calls for serious attention and clinical vision of the doctors to stop mortality caused by such diseases by early consideration of serious complications.

Introduction

Glycine encephalopathy, also known as non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) represents a disorder characterized by elevated concentrations of glycine in all body tissues, especially in plasma and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). NKH is caused by deficiency in the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Most glycine encephalopathy cases occur during the neonatal period. The current report presents a case of NKH neonatal intractable seizures. Evaluating a sick neonate who presents with hypotonia, encephalopathy, and seizures is a diagnostic challenge; a high index of suspicion for timely diagnosis and treatment could prevent severe complications.

Case Presentation

The patient was a four-day-old baby girl in Iran admitted to the hospital due to hypotonia, lethargy and seizures. On the third day after discharge, the baby gradually lost the ability to suck milk and got sleepy and finally suffered from organ jump and seizures. Sepsis and antibiotics phenytoin tests were conducted and in metabolic testing, high level of glycine in blood and urine was reported and the patient was treated with sodium benzoate dextromethorphan and L-carnitine, after the start of the treatment, seizures and neurologic symptoms and alertness of the baby improved. The patient was discharged by continuing treatment after two weeks with seizure control, improved sucking reflexes and grasp.

Newborn;Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia;Seizures;Hypotonia Newborn;Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemia;Seizures;Hypotonia http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=33423 Navid Danaei Navid Danaei Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Shamsollah Nooripour Shamsollah Nooripour Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Pediatric, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-31491 Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The number of linguistic studies on language and speech therapy is more than that of the studies in which clinical data are used to study the theories and hypotheses. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this area seriously and guide the studies toward the theories proposed in the related disorders. Thus, attention must be paid to pragmatic and semantic domains of the disorder which are considered less.

Materials and Methods

Studies related to linguistics and speech therapy were collected and studied since their appearance in the literature up to 2012 to determine the number of studies performed on clinical linguistics and its evolutionary trend.

Results

The most and least numbers of studies conducted by speech therapists on linguistics are related to phonetics/phonology (37%) and pragmatics (14%), respectively. In linguistics, there are a few studies on disorders (0.02%), which are mostly in the domain of aphasia (40%); therefore, other disorders should be investigated too.

Background

Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area.

Objectives

Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country.

Conclusions

The number of linguistic studies on language and speech therapy is more than that of the studies in which clinical data are used to study the theories and hypotheses. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this area seriously and guide the studies toward the theories proposed in the related disorders. Thus, attention must be paid to pragmatic and semantic domains of the disorder which are considered less.

Materials and Methods

Studies related to linguistics and speech therapy were collected and studied since their appearance in the literature up to 2012 to determine the number of studies performed on clinical linguistics and its evolutionary trend.

Results

The most and least numbers of studies conducted by speech therapists on linguistics are related to phonetics/phonology (37%) and pragmatics (14%), respectively. In linguistics, there are a few studies on disorders (0.02%), which are mostly in the domain of aphasia (40%); therefore, other disorders should be investigated too.

Background

Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area.

Objectives

Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country.

Clinical Linguistics;Research Priority;Speech Pathology;Linguistics Clinical Linguistics;Research Priority;Speech Pathology;Linguistics http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=31491 Hourieh Ahadi Hourieh Ahadi Linguistics Department, Institute for Humanities Sciences and Cultural Studies, Tehran, IR Iran; Linguistics Department, Institute for Humanities Sciences and Cultural Studies, Tehran, IR Iran Linguistics Department, Institute for Humanities Sciences and Cultural Studies, Tehran, IR Iran; Linguistics Department, Institute for Humanities Sciences and Cultural Studies, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-32992 Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in Semnan, Iran Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in Semnan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

It can be concluded that schizophrenia can have an effect on the quality of life. Some items such as family care, early and on time treatment play an important role in increasing the quality of life.

Results

The participants in this study gained the highest quality of life in the domain of physical, environmental and psychological health and social relationships. There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of the quality of life in this study.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia. To evaluate their quality of life, the short-form of the questionnaire of world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-26) was used. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.

Objectives

Due to the greater prevalence of this disease and the impact of its symptoms on the one’s quality of life, this study was conducted on the people with chronic schizophrenia to determine in which aspects of their quality of life is more likely affected in Semnan, Iran.

Background

Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and one of the ten leading causes of mental disability. Level of education, family factors and individual culture affect the patients’ quality of life.

Conclusions

It can be concluded that schizophrenia can have an effect on the quality of life. Some items such as family care, early and on time treatment play an important role in increasing the quality of life.

Results

The participants in this study gained the highest quality of life in the domain of physical, environmental and psychological health and social relationships. There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of the quality of life in this study.

Patients and Methods

This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia. To evaluate their quality of life, the short-form of the questionnaire of world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-26) was used. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.

Objectives

Due to the greater prevalence of this disease and the impact of its symptoms on the one’s quality of life, this study was conducted on the people with chronic schizophrenia to determine in which aspects of their quality of life is more likely affected in Semnan, Iran.

Background

Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and one of the ten leading causes of mental disability. Level of education, family factors and individual culture affect the patients’ quality of life.

Quality of Life;Schizophrenia;Semnan Quality of Life;Schizophrenia;Semnan http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=32992 Shamsi Jamali Shamsi Jamali Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Afsaneh Abri Afsaneh Abri Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mina Sadat Mirshoja Mina Sadat Mirshoja Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180 Behnaz Behnam Behnaz Behnam Faculty of Psychology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Faculty of Psychology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Majid Mir Mohammadkhani Majid Mir Mohammadkhani Research Center for Social Determinants of Health and the Department of Social Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Research Center for Social Determinants of Health and the Department of Social Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-36059 Influence of Inward Pressure of the Transducer on Thickness and Echo Intensity of the Rectus Femoris Muscle During Ultrasonography Influence of Inward Pressure of the Transducer on Thickness and Echo Intensity of the Rectus Femoris Muscle During Ultrasonography research-article research-article Conclusions

Our results indicate that changes in muscle thickness and echo intensity are induced by different inward pressures of the transducer during US. When using a technique that involves a handheld transducer, the examiner should attempt to maintain consistent inward pressure of the transducer during US, to quantify the minimal change of the RF mass and composition.

Results

Muscle thickness was significantly decreased during increased inward pressures of the transducer among the three conditions (P < 0.001). On the other hand, echo intensity from the 0.5-N to 1.0-N condition was significantly decreased (P = 0.002), and from the 1.0-N to 2.0-N condition, it was significantly increased (P = 0.019).

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in muscle thickness and echo intensity induced by different inward pressures of the transducer during US.

Materials and Methods

Fifteen healthy male volunteers (mean ± SD, 20.7 ± 0.7 years old) participated in the study. Thickness and echo intensity of the right rectus femoris muscle (RF) was measured by US in the following three conditions: inward pressures of 0.5 N, 1.0 N, and 2.0 N. A repeated-measures ANOVA was utilized to determine the influence of inward pressure on the thickness and echo intensity of the RF.

Background

Muscle ultrasonography (US) can be used to evaluate muscle quantity and quality affected by a neuromuscular disease and aging. The evaluation of muscle thickness and echo intensity using US are useful ways of estimating muscle mass and composition. During US, diligent attention to steadying the position, orientation, and inward pressure of a transducer is required; however, little is known about the quantitative influence of different inward pressures of the transducer on muscle thickness and echo intensity during US.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that changes in muscle thickness and echo intensity are induced by different inward pressures of the transducer during US. When using a technique that involves a handheld transducer, the examiner should attempt to maintain consistent inward pressure of the transducer during US, to quantify the minimal change of the RF mass and composition.

Results

Muscle thickness was significantly decreased during increased inward pressures of the transducer among the three conditions (P < 0.001). On the other hand, echo intensity from the 0.5-N to 1.0-N condition was significantly decreased (P = 0.002), and from the 1.0-N to 2.0-N condition, it was significantly increased (P = 0.019).

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in muscle thickness and echo intensity induced by different inward pressures of the transducer during US.

Materials and Methods

Fifteen healthy male volunteers (mean ± SD, 20.7 ± 0.7 years old) participated in the study. Thickness and echo intensity of the right rectus femoris muscle (RF) was measured by US in the following three conditions: inward pressures of 0.5 N, 1.0 N, and 2.0 N. A repeated-measures ANOVA was utilized to determine the influence of inward pressure on the thickness and echo intensity of the RF.

Background

Muscle ultrasonography (US) can be used to evaluate muscle quantity and quality affected by a neuromuscular disease and aging. The evaluation of muscle thickness and echo intensity using US are useful ways of estimating muscle mass and composition. During US, diligent attention to steadying the position, orientation, and inward pressure of a transducer is required; however, little is known about the quantitative influence of different inward pressures of the transducer on muscle thickness and echo intensity during US.

Ultrasonography;Transducer;Rectus Femoris Ultrasonography;Transducer;Rectus Femoris http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36059 Hiroshi Ishida Hiroshi Ishida Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan. Tel: +81-864621111, Fax: +81-864641109 Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan. Tel: +81-864621111, Fax: +81-864641109 Tadanobu Suehiro Tadanobu Suehiro Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Susumu Watanabe Susumu Watanabe Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan
en 10.17795/mejrh-33275 The Impact of the Sensory Integration Approach on Positive and Negative Symptoms in a Patient With Non-Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Case Report The Impact of the Sensory Integration Approach on Positive and Negative Symptoms in a Patient With Non-Paranoid Schizophrenia: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

After eight sessions, increased awareness of the environment, improved posture and gait pattern, improved motivation and enjoyment, improved patient tolerance, improved appearance and personal hygiene, loss of purposeful behavior, a realistic plan of action every day, improved attention span, improved decision-making skills, and improved community involvement and coping skills were achieved. The environment is rich in sensory stimuli. The integration and processing of each individual senses creates different behavioral responses. The results showed that a sensory integration approach combined with drug therapy is an effective treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

Case Presentation

The subject (A.H.) was a 32-year-old male graduate student with no history of previous hospitalization. His diagnosis was schizophrenia. The reason for his hospitalization was that he was angry and violent toward his family. In addition, the patient had limited verbal and nonverbal skills, issues with self-control, and restricted community involvement. The results of the patient’s treatment for schizophrenia was assessed via a questionnaire on social skills.

Introduction

One of the problems that people with schizophrenia face is the inability to understand and interpret the sensory input from the environment. This report aims to describe the effects of the sensory integration approach on non-paranoid schizophrenia. The treatment involved eight sessions held 3 days a week and lasting 45 minutes each. The patient had a defined Iranians form social relationships schizophrenia evaluated and treatment. Sensory integration therapy in these patients focused on the following elements: vestibular and proprioceptive senses, exercises to improve walking, improving upper extremity coordination and movement, writing activities, cognitive skills, activities of daily living, and family therapy.

Conclusions

After eight sessions, increased awareness of the environment, improved posture and gait pattern, improved motivation and enjoyment, improved patient tolerance, improved appearance and personal hygiene, loss of purposeful behavior, a realistic plan of action every day, improved attention span, improved decision-making skills, and improved community involvement and coping skills were achieved. The environment is rich in sensory stimuli. The integration and processing of each individual senses creates different behavioral responses. The results showed that a sensory integration approach combined with drug therapy is an effective treatment for patients with schizophrenia.

Case Presentation

The subject (A.H.) was a 32-year-old male graduate student with no history of previous hospitalization. His diagnosis was schizophrenia. The reason for his hospitalization was that he was angry and violent toward his family. In addition, the patient had limited verbal and nonverbal skills, issues with self-control, and restricted community involvement. The results of the patient’s treatment for schizophrenia was assessed via a questionnaire on social skills.

Introduction

One of the problems that people with schizophrenia face is the inability to understand and interpret the sensory input from the environment. This report aims to describe the effects of the sensory integration approach on non-paranoid schizophrenia. The treatment involved eight sessions held 3 days a week and lasting 45 minutes each. The patient had a defined Iranians form social relationships schizophrenia evaluated and treatment. Sensory integration therapy in these patients focused on the following elements: vestibular and proprioceptive senses, exercises to improve walking, improving upper extremity coordination and movement, writing activities, cognitive skills, activities of daily living, and family therapy.

Sensory Integration Approach;Schizophrenia, Non-Paranoid Sensory Integration Approach;Schizophrenia, Non-Paranoid http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=33275 Jinoos Jadidi Jinoos Jadidi Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre and Occupational Therapy, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre and Occupational Therapy, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mina Sadat Mirshoja Mina Sadat Mirshoja Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Centre, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333654180
en 10.17795/mejrh-35619 Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale research-article research-article Conclusions

The Persian version of DAD, during the study, had a very good validity and reliability and can serve as a useful scale in clinical assessment of functional disability in patients with Alzheimer’s in the area of activities of daily living.

Background

As dementia progresses in the course of life, one's functions may be reduced regarding to fulfill the activities of daily living. One of the most important factor to diagnose and determine the severity of dementia is to assess activities of daily living.

Objectives

one the most important factor in determining the severity of dementia in the area of activities of daily living is disability assessment for dementia (DAD) scale, which is not available in Persian and there is no validity and reliability report for it in Iranian community. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a Persian version of the valid and reliable DAD scale to assess functional disability in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type within the scope of everyday living activities.

Results

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was very good for the scale (Cronbach’s α = 0.78) and the inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation/ICC = 0.99, ICC = 0.99). The clarity and necessity of the translated items based on the scores of CVI and CVR were also acceptable.

Patients and Methods

After the permission from the developer of the original scale, we translated the English version to Persian according to the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) approach. To review the clarity and the necessity of the items translated, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) methods were applied. Also, to assess the reliability of the scale, test-retest and inter-rater reliability techniques were used. The internal consistency of the items was also measured using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Conclusions

The Persian version of DAD, during the study, had a very good validity and reliability and can serve as a useful scale in clinical assessment of functional disability in patients with Alzheimer’s in the area of activities of daily living.

Background

As dementia progresses in the course of life, one's functions may be reduced regarding to fulfill the activities of daily living. One of the most important factor to diagnose and determine the severity of dementia is to assess activities of daily living.

Objectives

one the most important factor in determining the severity of dementia in the area of activities of daily living is disability assessment for dementia (DAD) scale, which is not available in Persian and there is no validity and reliability report for it in Iranian community. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a Persian version of the valid and reliable DAD scale to assess functional disability in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type within the scope of everyday living activities.

Results

Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was very good for the scale (Cronbach’s α = 0.78) and the inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation/ICC = 0.99, ICC = 0.99). The clarity and necessity of the translated items based on the scores of CVI and CVR were also acceptable.

Patients and Methods

After the permission from the developer of the original scale, we translated the English version to Persian according to the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) approach. To review the clarity and the necessity of the items translated, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) methods were applied. Also, to assess the reliability of the scale, test-retest and inter-rater reliability techniques were used. The internal consistency of the items was also measured using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Reliability;Validity;Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale Reliability;Validity;Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35619 Hamid Soltani Zangbar Hamid Soltani Zangbar Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Afsoon Hassani Mehraban Afsoon Hassani Mehraban Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122227124, Fax: +98-2122220946 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122227124, Fax: +98-2122220946 Malahat Akbarfahimi Malahat Akbarfahimi Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Mohammadian Rasanani Fatemeh Mohammadian Rasanani Neurology Department, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran Neurology Department, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-36087 Probiotics and Inflammatory Pain: A Literature Review Study Probiotics and Inflammatory Pain: A Literature Review Study review-article review-article Context

Inflammatory pains caused by direct stimulation of nociceptors are altered by release of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines and also gut microbiota. A substantial clinical evidence supports the pivotal role of probiotics in the betterment of inflammatory disorders symptoms such as pain. Therefore, this study aimed to review the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic roles of usual probiotic compounds in animal and human disorders.

Evidence Acquisition

The increasing demand for betterment of inflammatory pain and its symptoms has led to the introduction of the role of probiotics in inflammatory pain recovery. Our literature review yielded 77 articles from 1965 to 2014 in the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO.

Conclusions

Probiotics may help to slow down progression and diminish symptoms of inflammation in animal species and human via inhibition of proinflammatory and reinforcement of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Also, according to the results of the current study, it seems that probiotics are useful for alleviating inflammatory pain without any adverse effects on host.

Results

In this study, we reviewed most of the existing papers on probiotics especially focused on inflammation and pain. Our review showed that probiotics offer many advantages including toxin receptors elimination, supporting the repair of hyper permeable epithelial barriers, interfering with infections and immune system reinforcement. It was revealed that there is a close correlation between the expression of cytokines and opioid receptors in the process of inflammatory pain and probiotics have notable effects on cytokines and opioid receptors expression. Probiotics can stimulate the differentiation and activity of important immune cells (e.g. T cells), subsequently increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and mu-opioid receptors and decrease levels of proinflammatory cytokines.

Context

Inflammatory pains caused by direct stimulation of nociceptors are altered by release of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines and also gut microbiota. A substantial clinical evidence supports the pivotal role of probiotics in the betterment of inflammatory disorders symptoms such as pain. Therefore, this study aimed to review the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic roles of usual probiotic compounds in animal and human disorders.

Evidence Acquisition

The increasing demand for betterment of inflammatory pain and its symptoms has led to the introduction of the role of probiotics in inflammatory pain recovery. Our literature review yielded 77 articles from 1965 to 2014 in the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO.

Conclusions

Probiotics may help to slow down progression and diminish symptoms of inflammation in animal species and human via inhibition of proinflammatory and reinforcement of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Also, according to the results of the current study, it seems that probiotics are useful for alleviating inflammatory pain without any adverse effects on host.

Results

In this study, we reviewed most of the existing papers on probiotics especially focused on inflammation and pain. Our review showed that probiotics offer many advantages including toxin receptors elimination, supporting the repair of hyper permeable epithelial barriers, interfering with infections and immune system reinforcement. It was revealed that there is a close correlation between the expression of cytokines and opioid receptors in the process of inflammatory pain and probiotics have notable effects on cytokines and opioid receptors expression. Probiotics can stimulate the differentiation and activity of important immune cells (e.g. T cells), subsequently increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and mu-opioid receptors and decrease levels of proinflammatory cytokines.

Probiotic;Inflammation;Pain;Cytokine;Opioid Probiotic;Inflammation;Pain;Cytokine;Opioid http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36087 Vida Nazemian Vida Nazemian Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mahdi Shadnoush Mahdi Shadnoush Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Faculty of Nutrition Science and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Faculty of Nutrition Science and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Homa Manaheji Homa Manaheji Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Jalal Zaringhalam Jalal Zaringhalam Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122439971 Neurophysiology Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122439971
en 10.17795/mejrh-36719 An Unusual Os Trigonum Syndrome Case Secondary to Car Accident: A Case Report An Unusual Os Trigonum Syndrome Case Secondary to Car Accident: A Case Report case-report case-report Conclusions

The os trigonum syndrome should take in consideration in elderly subject who had posterior ankle pain starting after a car accident.

Case Presentation

A 62-year-old female patient was admitted with load depended ankle pain and swelling, lasting for five years which promptly started after a car accident. We incidentally discovered os trigonum on plain radiography on a lateral view of the right ankle.

Introduction

The os trigonum syndrome is a common cause of posterior ankle pain, often affecting ballet dancers, soccer players, runners and gymnasts who frequently force the ankle into plantar flexion. In rare cases, onset of the os trigonum syndrome followed an acute injury.

Conclusions

The os trigonum syndrome should take in consideration in elderly subject who had posterior ankle pain starting after a car accident.

Case Presentation

A 62-year-old female patient was admitted with load depended ankle pain and swelling, lasting for five years which promptly started after a car accident. We incidentally discovered os trigonum on plain radiography on a lateral view of the right ankle.

Introduction

The os trigonum syndrome is a common cause of posterior ankle pain, often affecting ballet dancers, soccer players, runners and gymnasts who frequently force the ankle into plantar flexion. In rare cases, onset of the os trigonum syndrome followed an acute injury.

Os Trigonum Syndrome;Ankle pain;Car Accident Os Trigonum Syndrome;Ankle pain;Car Accident http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36719 Vildan Binay Safer Vildan Binay Safer Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Umut Safer Umut Safer Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5062356333, Fax: +90-3123044000 Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Internal Medicine, Gulhane School of Medicine, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5062356333, Fax: +90-3123044000 Levent Kaya Levent Kaya Department of Radiology, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Radiology, Istanbul Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
en 10.17795/mejrh-35848 Somatic Mutation in Immunoglobulin Gene Variable Region in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia and Its Influence on Disease Prognosis Somatic Mutation in Immunoglobulin Gene Variable Region in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia and Its Influence on Disease Prognosis research-article research-article Conclusions

According to this study, IgVH3 mutation was found to be prevalent (Although a correlation was found to exist between the patients’ survival and IgVH mutation, it was not statistically significant). We can conclude that clinical methods are still valuable to predict the prognosis of patients with CLL. Given the high cost and need for specialized laboratory, determining the cost and value of examining immunoglobulin heavy chain mutations and types of mutation such as IgVH3 are necessary in further studies.

Results

Study patients were 42 to 80 years old, with their mean age of 62 (SE = 1.87) years. About 73% of them were male. The mean white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocytes percentage, average hemoglobin level, and platelet count were 56,000/µL, 85%, 12 g/dL, and 150,000/µL, respectively. According to their molecular analysis, 38.9% of patients were unmutated and 61.1% showed mutation in the variable heavy chain locus. The most common mutation had occurred in IgVH3 allele (66.66%). The mean overall survival rate of patients, mutated and unmutated, was, respectively, 39 (95% CI, 32 to 46) and 31 (95% CI, 26 to 36) months (P = 0.4). Binet stage had statistically significant relationship with patients’ survival (P = 0.02).

Background

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common blood cancer in people aged over 40. In addition to clinical and pathologic staging and blood tests, immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) mutation analysis is a relevant prognostic factor for CLL. Finding the most prevalent mutation type and conducting a molecular analysis of immunoglobulin in the majority of the patients can contribute to identifying the disease pattern.

Objectives

In the present study, we used molecular detection methods to find the relationship between clinical and pathologic findings with immunoglobulin heavy chain mutations in CLL patients in Iran.

Patients and Methods

Patients with CLL were randomly selected from patients referred to Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. All patients underwent a clinical staging of the disease and had flow cytometric analysis performed on their blood samples. The panels of cell surface markers used for the diagnosis of chronic lymphoid leukemia include CD19, CD3, CD23, CD10, and CD5. The diagnosis confirmed a minimum of 20% positive expression of dual CD5 and CD19 markers. Genomic DNA was then extracted from the patients’ blood and IgVH mutation analysis was conducted with pGEM-T (easy vector) cloning kit followed by IgVH sequencing.

Conclusions

According to this study, IgVH3 mutation was found to be prevalent (Although a correlation was found to exist between the patients’ survival and IgVH mutation, it was not statistically significant). We can conclude that clinical methods are still valuable to predict the prognosis of patients with CLL. Given the high cost and need for specialized laboratory, determining the cost and value of examining immunoglobulin heavy chain mutations and types of mutation such as IgVH3 are necessary in further studies.

Results

Study patients were 42 to 80 years old, with their mean age of 62 (SE = 1.87) years. About 73% of them were male. The mean white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocytes percentage, average hemoglobin level, and platelet count were 56,000/µL, 85%, 12 g/dL, and 150,000/µL, respectively. According to their molecular analysis, 38.9% of patients were unmutated and 61.1% showed mutation in the variable heavy chain locus. The most common mutation had occurred in IgVH3 allele (66.66%). The mean overall survival rate of patients, mutated and unmutated, was, respectively, 39 (95% CI, 32 to 46) and 31 (95% CI, 26 to 36) months (P = 0.4). Binet stage had statistically significant relationship with patients’ survival (P = 0.02).

Background

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common blood cancer in people aged over 40. In addition to clinical and pathologic staging and blood tests, immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) mutation analysis is a relevant prognostic factor for CLL. Finding the most prevalent mutation type and conducting a molecular analysis of immunoglobulin in the majority of the patients can contribute to identifying the disease pattern.

Objectives

In the present study, we used molecular detection methods to find the relationship between clinical and pathologic findings with immunoglobulin heavy chain mutations in CLL patients in Iran.

Patients and Methods

Patients with CLL were randomly selected from patients referred to Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. All patients underwent a clinical staging of the disease and had flow cytometric analysis performed on their blood samples. The panels of cell surface markers used for the diagnosis of chronic lymphoid leukemia include CD19, CD3, CD23, CD10, and CD5. The diagnosis confirmed a minimum of 20% positive expression of dual CD5 and CD19 markers. Genomic DNA was then extracted from the patients’ blood and IgVH mutation analysis was conducted with pGEM-T (easy vector) cloning kit followed by IgVH sequencing.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia;Somatic Hypermutation;Prognostic Factor;Overall Survival;Igvh Mutation Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia;Somatic Hypermutation;Prognostic Factor;Overall Survival;Igvh Mutation http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35848 Sanambar Sadighi Sanambar Sadighi Hematologist and Medical Oncologist, Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hematologist and Medical Oncologist, Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Issa Jahanzad Issa Jahanzad Pathologist, Pathology Department, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Pathologist, Pathology Department, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi Surgeon, Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Surgeon, Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough Mahdieh Shokrollahi Barough Cancer Research Center, Department of Immunology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Student’s Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Cancer Research Center, Department of Immunology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Student’s Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran Kazem Zendehdel Kazem Zendehdel Cancer Research Center of Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Cancer Research Center of Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Parviz Kokhaei Parviz Kokhaei Cancer Research Center, Department of Immunology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46-851776889, Fax: +46-851776889 Cancer Research Center, Department of Immunology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Immune and Gene Therapy Lab, Cancer Center Karolinska (CCK), Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46-851776889, Fax: +46-851776889
en 10.17795/mejrh-24824 Elderly’s Quality of Life in Daycare and Boarding Nursing Homes in Semnan, Iran Elderly’s Quality of Life in Daycare and Boarding Nursing Homes in Semnan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The results showed that the elderlies living in daycare centers had better qualities of lives physically and mentally. Therefore, to improve their qualities of lives in two general physical and mental domains, items such as providing family communications inside or outside the nursing homes as well as planning to fulfill mental and psychological needs besides physical issues like mobility and balance should be considered.

Background

Old age is a period of life in which elderlies face with complications such as increasing risk of chronic diseases, loneliness, isolation, mental and physical disabilities, and reduction of individual independence. These factors cause the quality of life to reduce.

Objectives

This study compared the quality of life of elderlies in daycare and boarding nursing homes in Semnan, Iran and identified the differences in characteristics of quality of life. It can also help researchers to reduce the problems of elderlies.

Results

On the basis of SF-36 test and comparing various aspects of quality of life among the elderlies residing in boarding and daycare nursing homes, significant differences were observed in domains of quality of life, including physical restrictions (P < 0.001), restrictions in psycho-emotional function (P < 0.001), energy and fatigue (P < 0.008), psycho-emotional function (P < 0.001), social function (P < 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), and public health (P < 0.01). However, the difference was not significant in physical function (P = 0.437).

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 30 elderlies living in boarding nursing homes and 43 in daycare nursing homes. Collecting the data was conducted via a special questionnaire (SF-36), measuring different aspects of quality of life.

Conclusions

The results showed that the elderlies living in daycare centers had better qualities of lives physically and mentally. Therefore, to improve their qualities of lives in two general physical and mental domains, items such as providing family communications inside or outside the nursing homes as well as planning to fulfill mental and psychological needs besides physical issues like mobility and balance should be considered.

Background

Old age is a period of life in which elderlies face with complications such as increasing risk of chronic diseases, loneliness, isolation, mental and physical disabilities, and reduction of individual independence. These factors cause the quality of life to reduce.

Objectives

This study compared the quality of life of elderlies in daycare and boarding nursing homes in Semnan, Iran and identified the differences in characteristics of quality of life. It can also help researchers to reduce the problems of elderlies.

Results

On the basis of SF-36 test and comparing various aspects of quality of life among the elderlies residing in boarding and daycare nursing homes, significant differences were observed in domains of quality of life, including physical restrictions (P < 0.001), restrictions in psycho-emotional function (P < 0.001), energy and fatigue (P < 0.008), psycho-emotional function (P < 0.001), social function (P < 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), and public health (P < 0.01). However, the difference was not significant in physical function (P = 0.437).

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed on 30 elderlies living in boarding nursing homes and 43 in daycare nursing homes. Collecting the data was conducted via a special questionnaire (SF-36), measuring different aspects of quality of life.

Aging;Quality of Life;Nursing Home Aging;Quality of Life;Nursing Home http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=24824 Alliakbar Pahlavanian Alliakbar Pahlavanian Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Mina Sadat Mirshoja Mina Sadat Mirshoja Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333322332, Fax: +98-2333654180 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333322332, Fax: +98-2333654180 Ziaeddin Safavi-Farokhi Ziaeddin Safavi-Farokhi Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Zahra Ahmadizadeh Zahra Ahmadizadeh Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Massoumeh Rasoulzadeh Massoumeh Rasoulzadeh Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-36533 Short-Term Effects of the Stage-Matched Multicomponent Lifestyle Intervention on Weight Control Short-Term Effects of the Stage-Matched Multicomponent Lifestyle Intervention on Weight Control research-article research-article Conclusions

The study found an association between the stages of change model and obesity control.

Results

The findings indicated a statistical difference in scores of body mass index, self-efficacy scale, and health promotion lifestyle profile between the intervention and control group.

Patients and Methods

The student participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 52) and control groups (n = 51). Before and after the intervention, data were collected using the following forms: socio-demographic features, the stages of change (SOC) short, self-efficacy and self-efficacy scale (SES), the eating habits questionnaire, health promotion lifestyle profile and the body composition device.

Background

Obese people are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality associated with multiple acute and chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and some cancers in adulthood.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze weight control behaviours in university students using the Transtheoretical model.

Conclusions

The study found an association between the stages of change model and obesity control.

Results

The findings indicated a statistical difference in scores of body mass index, self-efficacy scale, and health promotion lifestyle profile between the intervention and control group.

Patients and Methods

The student participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 52) and control groups (n = 51). Before and after the intervention, data were collected using the following forms: socio-demographic features, the stages of change (SOC) short, self-efficacy and self-efficacy scale (SES), the eating habits questionnaire, health promotion lifestyle profile and the body composition device.

Background

Obese people are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality associated with multiple acute and chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and some cancers in adulthood.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze weight control behaviours in university students using the Transtheoretical model.

Diet;Exercise;Transtheoretical Model;Weight Loss;University Students Diet;Exercise;Transtheoretical Model;Weight Loss;University Students http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36533 Gulnaz Karatay Gulnaz Karatay Health High School, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey; Health High School, Tunceli University, 62000, Tunceli, Turkey. Tel: +428-2131794, Fax: +428-2131861 Health High School, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey; Health High School, Tunceli University, 62000, Tunceli, Turkey. Tel: +428-2131794, Fax: +428-2131861 Yeliz Akkus Yeliz Akkus Health High School, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey Health High School, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey Nevzat Demirci Nevzat Demirci Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey Baris Ozturk Baris Ozturk Depertmant of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Biruni, Zeytinburnu, Turkey Depertmant of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Biruni, Zeytinburnu, Turkey
en 10.17795/mejrh-37972 The Use of Operant Methods to Evaluate Interventions for Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis The Use of Operant Methods to Evaluate Interventions for Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis case-report case-report Introduction

The current study provides data from two patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, who charted several of their symptoms over time.

Case Presentation

Each patient charted domains that were relevant to them, and they were attempting to assess the effects of specific interventions. An AB operant design was used for both participants. The findings indicate that by charting symptoms on a regular basis, it is possible to determine if a particular intervention is helpful and effective.

Conclusions

This methodology is easily available to patients and clinicians so that they can have a clearer idea of the effectiveness of interventions for managing some symptoms of ME.

Introduction

The current study provides data from two patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, who charted several of their symptoms over time.

Case Presentation

Each patient charted domains that were relevant to them, and they were attempting to assess the effects of specific interventions. An AB operant design was used for both participants. The findings indicate that by charting symptoms on a regular basis, it is possible to determine if a particular intervention is helpful and effective.

Conclusions

This methodology is easily available to patients and clinicians so that they can have a clearer idea of the effectiveness of interventions for managing some symptoms of ME.

Operant Designs;Symptom Management;Mold;Mylagic Encephalomyelitis;Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Operant Designs;Symptom Management;Mold;Mylagic Encephalomyelitis;Chronic Fatigue Syndrome http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37972 Leonard A Jason Leonard A Jason DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA; DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA. Tel: +177-33252018, Fax: +177-33989745 DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA; DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA. Tel: +177-33252018, Fax: +177-33989745 Elizabeth K Kidd Elizabeth K Kidd DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA Abigail A Brown Abigail A Brown DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA Stephanie McManimen Stephanie McManimen DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA DePaul University, Center for Community Research, Chicago, USA Rachael Korinek Rachael Korinek MyPatientMatch, Chicago, USA MyPatientMatch, Chicago, USA Joey Tuan Joey Tuan MyPatientMatch, Chicago, USA MyPatientMatch, Chicago, USA
en 10.17795/mejrh-36782 Translation and Validation of Two Subscales of Independent Living Scales in the Elderly Iranians Translation and Validation of Two Subscales of Independent Living Scales in the Elderly Iranians research-article research-article Background

Aging often accompanies declines in muscular capabilities that hinder the performance of daily functions. One of the paramount objectives in occupational therapy is preserving clients’ independence through their ability to conduct instrumental daily living activities.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of two subscales of the independent living scales (ILS) in the elderly Iranians aged 60 - 85.

Materials and Methods

The translation of the two subscales, money management subscale and home management and transportation, were analyzed by experts to develop the final version of each. Afterwards, the face validity, content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) methods were examined. To assess the reliability of the subscales, test-retest reliability techniques were used. The internal consistency of the items was measured using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Results

The simplicity, relevance, clarity and the necessity of the translated items were acceptable, based on the CVI and CVR scores. Face validity was also acceptable with respect to agreement rate (> 80%), as well as the impact score (> 1.5) for all items. Test-retest reliability was acceptable with respect to the intraclass correlations (ICC) and the standard error of the mean (SEM) scores (ICC = 0.92, SEM = 1.39 for money management; ICC = 0.95, SEM = 0.941 for home management and transportation). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.80 and 0.74 for money management, and home management and transportation, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the study showed that Persian versions of the money management subscale and home management and transportation subscale from the ILS are highly reliable and valid tools to measure these domains of performance in older adults, and they can be used as clinical and research tools to assess instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) by professionals.

Background

Aging often accompanies declines in muscular capabilities that hinder the performance of daily functions. One of the paramount objectives in occupational therapy is preserving clients’ independence through their ability to conduct instrumental daily living activities.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of two subscales of the independent living scales (ILS) in the elderly Iranians aged 60 - 85.

Materials and Methods

The translation of the two subscales, money management subscale and home management and transportation, were analyzed by experts to develop the final version of each. Afterwards, the face validity, content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) methods were examined. To assess the reliability of the subscales, test-retest reliability techniques were used. The internal consistency of the items was measured using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Results

The simplicity, relevance, clarity and the necessity of the translated items were acceptable, based on the CVI and CVR scores. Face validity was also acceptable with respect to agreement rate (> 80%), as well as the impact score (> 1.5) for all items. Test-retest reliability was acceptable with respect to the intraclass correlations (ICC) and the standard error of the mean (SEM) scores (ICC = 0.92, SEM = 1.39 for money management; ICC = 0.95, SEM = 0.941 for home management and transportation). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.80 and 0.74 for money management, and home management and transportation, respectively.

Conclusions

The results of the study showed that Persian versions of the money management subscale and home management and transportation subscale from the ILS are highly reliable and valid tools to measure these domains of performance in older adults, and they can be used as clinical and research tools to assess instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) by professionals.

Independent Living Scales;Elderly;Validity;Reliability Independent Living Scales;Elderly;Validity;Reliability http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36782 Narges Shafaroodi Narges Shafaroodi Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +21-22228051 Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +21-22228051 Faeze Alvandi Faeze Alvandi Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Agha Fateme Hosseini Agha Fateme Hosseini Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-36097 Surgical Management of an Ovarian Bilateral Multiple Dermoid Cyst During Pregnancy: A Case Report Study Surgical Management of an Ovarian Bilateral Multiple Dermoid Cyst During Pregnancy: A Case Report Study case-report case-report Conclusions

It seems that early diagnosis and intact surgery of multiple ovarian dermoid cysts during the second trimester of pregnancy could prevent complication of cysts and probably guarantee the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Case Presentation

A 28-year-old, pregnant, primipara female with gestational age 20 weeks + four days where referred to with complaint of pelvic mass that was incidentally reported in sonography where referred to the hospital. She had undergone intact removal (without spillage) of cysts during pregnancy by laporotomy and histopathologic report confirmed bilateral, multiple, benign and dermoid cyst. She was discharged without any complication on the second day after operation. She had an uneventful pregnancy and a cesarean delivery with alive, normal, female fetus at 38 weeks of gestation because of breech presentation.

Introduction

Most ovarian dermoid cysts occur during the reproductive age and therefore could occur during pregnancy. They are present in 0.03% of pregnancies and the risk of torsion during pregnancy is approximately 8%. They are bilateral in approximately 10% of cases. Diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound imaging. An ovarian cystectomy is almost always possible, even if it appears that only a small amount of ovarian tissue remains. Intraoperative spill of tumor contents may be a cause of complications.

Conclusions

It seems that early diagnosis and intact surgery of multiple ovarian dermoid cysts during the second trimester of pregnancy could prevent complication of cysts and probably guarantee the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Case Presentation

A 28-year-old, pregnant, primipara female with gestational age 20 weeks + four days where referred to with complaint of pelvic mass that was incidentally reported in sonography where referred to the hospital. She had undergone intact removal (without spillage) of cysts during pregnancy by laporotomy and histopathologic report confirmed bilateral, multiple, benign and dermoid cyst. She was discharged without any complication on the second day after operation. She had an uneventful pregnancy and a cesarean delivery with alive, normal, female fetus at 38 weeks of gestation because of breech presentation.

Introduction

Most ovarian dermoid cysts occur during the reproductive age and therefore could occur during pregnancy. They are present in 0.03% of pregnancies and the risk of torsion during pregnancy is approximately 8%. They are bilateral in approximately 10% of cases. Diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound imaging. An ovarian cystectomy is almost always possible, even if it appears that only a small amount of ovarian tissue remains. Intraoperative spill of tumor contents may be a cause of complications.

Dermoid Cyst;Pregnancy;Ovary Dermoid Cyst;Pregnancy;Ovary http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36097 Sanam Moradan Sanam Moradan Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121318046, Fax: +98-9121318046 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121318046, Fax: +98-9121318046
en 10.17795/mejrh-34195 Unani Treatment Decreased Fibrosis and Improved Liver Functions in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Case Series Unani Treatment Decreased Fibrosis and Improved Liver Functions in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Case Series case-report case-report

At present, liver transplantation remains the only curative option for the patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. The survival rate and recurrent diseases remain the major issues in the patient post-transplantation. Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid) for centuries. The current study aimed to assess the impact of Unani treatment on decompensated cirrhosis and collect data to warrant further clinical trials. Authors conducted a case series on five patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The disease was confirmed through FibroScan and ultrasound and treated with Unani treatment orally for seven months. Results were evaluated based on FibroScan, liver function test (LFT), EuroQol-5D (EQ5D), Child-Pugh and TTO-TIME (trade-off question). Significant improvements in LFT, fibrosis and quality of life were achieved in the studied patients. The literature related to the herbal constituents of chief medicines used to treat in this case was reviewed. The herbs proved their potential anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immuno-modulator and antiviral activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in the cases. The preliminary findings indicated the potential therapeutic role of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical trials should be conducted to explore further therapeutic potential of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis.

At present, liver transplantation remains the only curative option for the patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. The survival rate and recurrent diseases remain the major issues in the patient post-transplantation. Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid) for centuries. The current study aimed to assess the impact of Unani treatment on decompensated cirrhosis and collect data to warrant further clinical trials. Authors conducted a case series on five patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The disease was confirmed through FibroScan and ultrasound and treated with Unani treatment orally for seven months. Results were evaluated based on FibroScan, liver function test (LFT), EuroQol-5D (EQ5D), Child-Pugh and TTO-TIME (trade-off question). Significant improvements in LFT, fibrosis and quality of life were achieved in the studied patients. The literature related to the herbal constituents of chief medicines used to treat in this case was reviewed. The herbs proved their potential anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immuno-modulator and antiviral activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in the cases. The preliminary findings indicated the potential therapeutic role of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical trials should be conducted to explore further therapeutic potential of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis.

Liver Cirrhosis;Unani Medicine;Complementary Medicine;Liver Fibrosis;Chronic Liver Disease;Hepato-Protective;Regenerative Herbs;Liver Diseases;Traditional Medicine;Case Series Cirrhosis Liver Cirrhosis;Unani Medicine;Complementary Medicine;Liver Fibrosis;Chronic Liver Disease;Hepato-Protective;Regenerative Herbs;Liver Diseases;Traditional Medicine;Case Series Cirrhosis http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34195 Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India Shabnam Ansari Shabnam Ansari Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India. Tel: +91-9818168642 Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi, India. Tel: +91-9818168642
en 10.17795/mejrh-37493 Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain research-article research-article Conclusions

The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

Results

The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001). The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05). In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035) and MODQ score (P = 0.001) at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP.

Patients and Methods

Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS), and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ), respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six.

Background

The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy.

Conclusions

The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

Results

The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001). The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05). In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035) and MODQ score (P = 0.001) at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP.

Patients and Methods

Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS), and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ), respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six.

Background

The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy.

Trunk Stabilization Exercises;Conventional Back Care Exercises;Endurance;Pain Trunk Stabilization Exercises;Conventional Back Care Exercises;Endurance;Pain http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37493 Hashim Ahmed Hashim Ahmed Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India; Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Tel: +91-9868020966 Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India; Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Tel: +91-9868020966 Amir Iqbal Amir Iqbal Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India Department of Physiotherapy, Himalayan University, Arunachal Pradesh, India M Abu Shaphe M Abu Shaphe Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Jizan, Saudi Arabia Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Jizan, Saudi Arabia