Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Middle East J Rehabil Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com 2423-4451 10.5812/mejrh. en jalali 2017 6 29 gregorian 2017 6 29 3 3
en 10.17795/mejrh-38504 Comparison of Dentinal Crack Formation With Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper Root Canal Preparation Systems Comparison of Dentinal Crack Formation With Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper Root Canal Preparation Systems research-article research-article Conclusions

Regarding the study limitations, dentinal cracks were observed in all files and distances from the apex. Although there was more crack incidence in ProTaper files, no significant differences were noted regarding the studied systems and sections from the apex.

Materials and Methods

In an experimental in vitro trial, 80 maxillary and mandibular first molars were selected and their crowns and distal roots were cut. The roots were then examined to remove any previous cracks and defects. An impression polyether material was used to simulate teeth periodontal ligament (PDL). The teeth were divided to four experimental groups (n = 20) and prepared using Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper or remained unprepared as a control group. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally on 3, 5 and 9 mm from the apex and number of micro-cracks was determined by stereomicroscope. The incidence of dentinal cracks on different systems or sections were statistically analyzed by means of the chi-square test.

Background

Instrumentation with rotary instruments could potentially cause dentinal cracks possibly leading to tooth fracture. Reciproc files require a single file to finalize the root canal preparation and the effect of this procedure has not been compared with other systems.

Results

Dentinal defects on 3-mm, 5-mm and 9-mm sections from the apex were noted in 10 (5.6%); 7 (3.9%) and 9 (5.0%) samples of all, respectively. Following canal preparation using Reciproc, ProTaper and Mtwo systems, the defects were observed in 7 (3.9%), 12 (6.7%) and 7 (3.9%) the sections, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the defect incidence on the studied instrumentation files or sections.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro-cracks following root canal preparations with ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc files.

Conclusions

Regarding the study limitations, dentinal cracks were observed in all files and distances from the apex. Although there was more crack incidence in ProTaper files, no significant differences were noted regarding the studied systems and sections from the apex.

Materials and Methods

In an experimental in vitro trial, 80 maxillary and mandibular first molars were selected and their crowns and distal roots were cut. The roots were then examined to remove any previous cracks and defects. An impression polyether material was used to simulate teeth periodontal ligament (PDL). The teeth were divided to four experimental groups (n = 20) and prepared using Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper or remained unprepared as a control group. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally on 3, 5 and 9 mm from the apex and number of micro-cracks was determined by stereomicroscope. The incidence of dentinal cracks on different systems or sections were statistically analyzed by means of the chi-square test.

Background

Instrumentation with rotary instruments could potentially cause dentinal cracks possibly leading to tooth fracture. Reciproc files require a single file to finalize the root canal preparation and the effect of this procedure has not been compared with other systems.

Results

Dentinal defects on 3-mm, 5-mm and 9-mm sections from the apex were noted in 10 (5.6%); 7 (3.9%) and 9 (5.0%) samples of all, respectively. Following canal preparation using Reciproc, ProTaper and Mtwo systems, the defects were observed in 7 (3.9%), 12 (6.7%) and 7 (3.9%) the sections, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the defect incidence on the studied instrumentation files or sections.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro-cracks following root canal preparations with ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc files.

Dentinal Cracks;Canal Preparation Systems;ProTaper, MTwo;Reciproc File Rotary System Dentinal Cracks;Canal Preparation Systems;ProTaper, MTwo;Reciproc File Rotary System http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38504 Kiumars Nazari Moghaddam Kiumars Nazari Moghaddam Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Seyed Lotfoallah Derakhshan Seyed Lotfoallah Derakhshan Endodontics Private Practice, Tehran, IR Iran Endodontics Private Practice, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Adeli Mohammad Adeli Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Ehsan Hamzelouei Moghadam Ehsan Hamzelouei Moghadam Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohadeseh Hashemzehi Mohadeseh Hashemzehi Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Sadegh Nazari Mohammad Sadegh Nazari Tehran Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Tehran Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Amir Ali Karamifar Amir Ali Karamifar Semnan Dental School, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Semnan Dental School, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-36697 The Impact of the Six-Week Walking on the Elderly’s Happiness and Mental Health The Impact of the Six-Week Walking on the Elderly’s Happiness and Mental Health research-article research-article Results

There was a significant difference in the self-esteem (P = 0.003), life satisfaction (P = 0.001), efficiency (P = 0.00), positive mood (P = 0.00), mental health (P = 0.001) and happiness (P = 0.001) among elderly women in the case group before and after a regular six-week walking program.

Conclusions

According to the results, walking increases the happiness and mental health of elderly women. Therefore, promoting the habit of walking as a public activity among elder women could have a significant impact on them.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-seven elderly women with a mean age of 61 years were randomly selected in two groups with available sampling; the case group with 14 participants and the control group with 13. The case group took part in walking exercises. Both groups completed the Persian Version of the oxford happiness inventory (OHI) before and after exercises. This inventory contains 29 items, which evaluates happiness components; self-esteem, positive mood, life satisfaction, efficiency and mental health.

Objectives

This study was done to evaluate the impact of the six-week hiking on happiness and mental health of elderly residing in Semnan.

Background

Aging is a sensitive period of human life and, considering the special needs and the behaviors that lead to mental health promotion and quality of life, this period is very important. The useful methods used to maintain mental health, reduce stress and make one more adaptive are doing physical activities and aerobic exercises. No studies in the past have investigated variety of exercises such as the role of hiking on mental health and happiness of elderly women.

Results

There was a significant difference in the self-esteem (P = 0.003), life satisfaction (P = 0.001), efficiency (P = 0.00), positive mood (P = 0.00), mental health (P = 0.001) and happiness (P = 0.001) among elderly women in the case group before and after a regular six-week walking program.

Conclusions

According to the results, walking increases the happiness and mental health of elderly women. Therefore, promoting the habit of walking as a public activity among elder women could have a significant impact on them.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-seven elderly women with a mean age of 61 years were randomly selected in two groups with available sampling; the case group with 14 participants and the control group with 13. The case group took part in walking exercises. Both groups completed the Persian Version of the oxford happiness inventory (OHI) before and after exercises. This inventory contains 29 items, which evaluates happiness components; self-esteem, positive mood, life satisfaction, efficiency and mental health.

Objectives

This study was done to evaluate the impact of the six-week hiking on happiness and mental health of elderly residing in Semnan.

Background

Aging is a sensitive period of human life and, considering the special needs and the behaviors that lead to mental health promotion and quality of life, this period is very important. The useful methods used to maintain mental health, reduce stress and make one more adaptive are doing physical activities and aerobic exercises. No studies in the past have investigated variety of exercises such as the role of hiking on mental health and happiness of elderly women.

Walking;Elderly;Happiness;Mental Health Walking;Elderly;Happiness;Mental Health http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=36697 Fatemeh Motaharinezhad Fatemeh Motaharinezhad Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502 Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran; Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2333328502 Pooran Madani Pooran Madani Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Sepideh Seyed Sepideh Seyed Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Karim Ayoubi Avaz Karim Ayoubi Avaz Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Masomeh Rasolzadeh Masomeh Rasolzadeh Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/mejrh-37378 Correlation Between Executive Function Behaviors and Educational Achievement of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder Correlation Between Executive Function Behaviors and Educational Achievement of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder research-article research-article Conclusions

The results may help clinicians for early intervention and focus on related components of executive function to improve the educational performance of DCD children. Knowing that executive function skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potentiality of targeted math and spelling interventions for DCD children.

Results

The findings showed that components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05), working memory (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and organization of material (r = -0.28, P < 0.05) were significantly correlated with the spelling test. And components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05), shift (r = -0.38, P < 0. 01), working memory (r = -0.28, P < 0.05), and planning (r = -.29, P<0.05) were correlated with math test.

Background

Developmental cordination disorder (DCD) is a serious deficit in development of motor coordination, which affects educational achievements and daily life activities to a considerable extent.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate correlations between components of executive function and spelling and math performance of 7 - 11-year-old children with DCD.

Materials and Methods

A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 53 primary school children with DCD. Persian version of motor observation questionnaire for teachers (PMOQ-T) was used to detect DCD. Executive functions and educational achievements of these children were evaluated using behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) and a researcher-made test, respectively. Results were analyzed through SPSS software (v. 21) and Pearson correlation coefficient.

Conclusions

The results may help clinicians for early intervention and focus on related components of executive function to improve the educational performance of DCD children. Knowing that executive function skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potentiality of targeted math and spelling interventions for DCD children.

Results

The findings showed that components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05), working memory (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and organization of material (r = -0.28, P < 0.05) were significantly correlated with the spelling test. And components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05), shift (r = -0.38, P < 0. 01), working memory (r = -0.28, P < 0.05), and planning (r = -.29, P<0.05) were correlated with math test.

Background

Developmental cordination disorder (DCD) is a serious deficit in development of motor coordination, which affects educational achievements and daily life activities to a considerable extent.

Objectives

The present study aimed to investigate correlations between components of executive function and spelling and math performance of 7 - 11-year-old children with DCD.

Materials and Methods

A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 53 primary school children with DCD. Persian version of motor observation questionnaire for teachers (PMOQ-T) was used to detect DCD. Executive functions and educational achievements of these children were evaluated using behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) and a researcher-made test, respectively. Results were analyzed through SPSS software (v. 21) and Pearson correlation coefficient.

Developmental Coordination Disorder;Executive Function;Educational Achievement;Spelling;Math Developmental Coordination Disorder;Executive Function;Educational Achievement;Spelling;Math http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37378 Shirin Maleki Shirin Maleki Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Alizadeh Zarei Mehdi Alizadeh Zarei Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123070065 Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123070065
en 10.17795/mejrh-35526 Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite as a Measure of the Effects of Heat in Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite as a Measure of the Effects of Heat in Multiple Sclerosis brief-report brief-report Conclusions

The results suggest that the MSFC could be used as a simple tool to detect the negative effects of heat in patients with MS.

Results

In the MS group the average MSFC scores were -0.48 (SD 0.79) at baseline, -0.99 (SD 1.97) during heat exposure and -0.68 (SD 1.58) after a one-hour delay. The average MSFC scores of the HC group were 0.58 (SD 0.42) at baseline, 0.66 (SD 0.43) during heat exposure and 0.68 (SD 0.41) after a one-hour delay. The MS group had significantly lower MSFC scores than the HC group (P = 0.01). The MS patients’ score deteriorated during the heat exposure, whereas that of the controls did not (P = 0.00).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) to demonstrate the effects of heat on functioning in patients with MS.

Patients and Methods

A total of 22 heat-sensitive MS patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were considered for the analysis. Moderate heat exposure took place in a Finnish sauna. Functioning was measured with the MSFC, which consists of two physical (the Nine Hole Peg test and the 25-foot timed walk test) and one cognitive (the PASAT-3) measure, before, during and one hour after the heat exposure.

Background

Heat sensitivity is a common feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), and heat has been found to impair MS patients’ physical and cognitive functioning. There is, however, no simple and specific measurement tool to evaluate the possible effects of heat on these functions.

Conclusions

The results suggest that the MSFC could be used as a simple tool to detect the negative effects of heat in patients with MS.

Results

In the MS group the average MSFC scores were -0.48 (SD 0.79) at baseline, -0.99 (SD 1.97) during heat exposure and -0.68 (SD 1.58) after a one-hour delay. The average MSFC scores of the HC group were 0.58 (SD 0.42) at baseline, 0.66 (SD 0.43) during heat exposure and 0.68 (SD 0.41) after a one-hour delay. The MS group had significantly lower MSFC scores than the HC group (P = 0.01). The MS patients’ score deteriorated during the heat exposure, whereas that of the controls did not (P = 0.00).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) to demonstrate the effects of heat on functioning in patients with MS.

Patients and Methods

A total of 22 heat-sensitive MS patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were considered for the analysis. Moderate heat exposure took place in a Finnish sauna. Functioning was measured with the MSFC, which consists of two physical (the Nine Hole Peg test and the 25-foot timed walk test) and one cognitive (the PASAT-3) measure, before, during and one hour after the heat exposure.

Background

Heat sensitivity is a common feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), and heat has been found to impair MS patients’ physical and cognitive functioning. There is, however, no simple and specific measurement tool to evaluate the possible effects of heat on these functions.

Cognition;Heat;Multiple Sclerosis;MSFC;Physical Functioning Cognition;Heat;Multiple Sclerosis;MSFC;Physical Functioning http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=35526 Anna M Ryosa Anna M Ryosa Department of Neurology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Neurology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Tel: +358-44 0407686 Department of Neurology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Neurology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Tel: +358-44 0407686 Anders Romberg Anders Romberg University of Turku, Turku, Finland University of Turku, Turku, Finland Juhani Ruutiainen Juhani Ruutiainen Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, Finland Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, Finland Paivi Hamalainen Paivi Hamalainen Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, Finland Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, Finland
en 10.17795/mejrh-38121 Guillain Barre Syndrome Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Rare Case Guillain Barre Syndrome Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Rare Case case-report case-report Introduction

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated acute inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Infectious agents were usually accused of playing a role in the etiology of GBS. Guillain-Barre syndrome has rarely been reported following subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage after head trauma.

Case Presentation

We report on a 63-year-old male patient presenting GBS following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Only five other similar cases are described in the literature.

Conclusions

Sudden onset of GBS symptoms following trauma may erroneously be assessed as secondary complications of the TBI and can lead to unnecessary procedures such as computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a definitive diagnosis and may be a waste of time.

Introduction

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated acute inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Infectious agents were usually accused of playing a role in the etiology of GBS. Guillain-Barre syndrome has rarely been reported following subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage after head trauma.

Case Presentation

We report on a 63-year-old male patient presenting GBS following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Only five other similar cases are described in the literature.

Conclusions

Sudden onset of GBS symptoms following trauma may erroneously be assessed as secondary complications of the TBI and can lead to unnecessary procedures such as computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a definitive diagnosis and may be a waste of time.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome;Traumatic Brain Injury;Rehabilitation Guillain-Barre Syndrome;Traumatic Brain Injury;Rehabilitation http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=38121 Zeynep Kirac Unal Zeynep Kirac Unal Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-5424364845 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90-5424364845 Ebru Karaca Umay Ebru Karaca Umay Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Yasemin Tombak Yasemin Tombak Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Ibrahim Gundogdu Ibrahim Gundogdu Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Tuba Erdem Sultanoglu Tuba Erdem Sultanoglu Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Fatma Aytul Cakci Fatma Aytul Cakci Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
en 10.17795/mejrh-37442 Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly Among Iranian Patients With Parkinson Disease Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly Among Iranian Patients With Parkinson Disease research-article research-article Background

Fear of falling (FOF) is highly common in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Fear of frequent falling arises from risk factors in PD.

Objectives

One of the most common tools used to measure FOF in patients with PD is the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFFE), but no studies have been conducted on its reliability and validity in Iran. The current study attempted to examine the construct validity and test-retest reliability of SAFFE among Iranian patients with PD.

Patients and Methods

The study included a total of 71 patients with PD, among whom 61 (55.4%) were male and 10 were female. The construct validity was evaluated through the Persian version of SAFFE self-report scale using activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale where the correlation between the two scales was assessed using the Pearson test. The test-retest reliability was evaluated through intra-class correlation (ICC), standard errors of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC).

Results

The correlation between ABC scale and Persian version of SAFFE scale was desirable (r = -0.87 and P < 0.0001). According to the statistical results, it can be argued that the correlation between SAFFE scale test-retest scores with those of relative and absolute correlation coefficients were ICC = 0.96 and SEM = 0.16 respectively, which represent great reliability of the scale.

Conclusions

The Persian version of SAFFE has adequate construct validity and test-retest reliability and is an ideal tool to measure FOF in the patients.

Background

Fear of falling (FOF) is highly common in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Fear of frequent falling arises from risk factors in PD.

Objectives

One of the most common tools used to measure FOF in patients with PD is the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFFE), but no studies have been conducted on its reliability and validity in Iran. The current study attempted to examine the construct validity and test-retest reliability of SAFFE among Iranian patients with PD.

Patients and Methods

The study included a total of 71 patients with PD, among whom 61 (55.4%) were male and 10 were female. The construct validity was evaluated through the Persian version of SAFFE self-report scale using activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale where the correlation between the two scales was assessed using the Pearson test. The test-retest reliability was evaluated through intra-class correlation (ICC), standard errors of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC).

Results

The correlation between ABC scale and Persian version of SAFFE scale was desirable (r = -0.87 and P < 0.0001). According to the statistical results, it can be argued that the correlation between SAFFE scale test-retest scores with those of relative and absolute correlation coefficients were ICC = 0.96 and SEM = 0.16 respectively, which represent great reliability of the scale.

Conclusions

The Persian version of SAFFE has adequate construct validity and test-retest reliability and is an ideal tool to measure FOF in the patients.

Neurodegenerative Disease;Independent Living;Data Accuracy;Validity Neurodegenerative Disease;Independent Living;Data Accuracy;Validity http://www.jrehabilhealth.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=37442 Masoumeh Zarei Masoumeh Zarei Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Laleh Lajevardi Laleh Lajevardi Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122228051, Fax: +98-2122220946 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122228051, Fax: +98-2122220946 Mahdi Alizadeh Zarei Mahdi Alizadeh Zarei Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Akram Azad Akram Azad Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Emad Mollazadeh Emad Mollazadeh Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran